Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE

Senegal

Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE

Senegal
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Demoncheaux J.-P.,Direction Interarmees du Service de Sante | Michel R.,Center Depidemiologie Et Of Sante Publique Des Armees | Mazenot C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE | Duflos G.,Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire de lAlimentation | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85·9%), headache (83·1%), rapid/weak pulse (59·1%) and diarrhoea (47·9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36·3, 95% confidence interval 6·3- 210·0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Barquero-Calvo E.,National University of Costa Rica | Martirosyan A.,Aix - Marseille University | Martirosyan A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Martirosyan A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 21 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i) comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii) augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs); iii) higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv) significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v) increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity. © 2013 Barquero-Calvo et al.


Sassi M.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE | Robert C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE | Raoult D.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE | Drancourt M.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE
Standards in Genomic Sciences | Year: 2013

Mycobacterium simiae is a nontuberculosis mycobacterium causing pulmonary infections in both immunocompetent and imunocompromized patients. We announce the draft genome sequence of M. simiae DSM 44165T. The 5,782,968-bp long genome with 65.15% GC content (one chromosome, no plasmid) contains 5,727 open reading frames (33% with unknown function and 11 ORFs sizing more than 5000 -bp), three rRNA operons, 52 tRNA, one 66-bp tmRNA matching with tmRNA tags from Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium microti, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium africanum and 389 DNA repetitive sequences. Comparing ORFs and size distribution between M. simiae and five other Mycobacterium species M. simiae clustered with M. abscessus and M. smegmatis. A 40-kb prophage was predicted in addition to two prophagelike elements, 7-kb and 18-kb in size, but no mycobacteriophage was seen after the observation of 106 M. simiae cells. Fifteen putative CRISPRs were found. Three genes were predicted to encode resistance to aminoglycosides, betalactams and macrolidelincosamidestreptogramin B. A total of 163 CAZYmes were annotated. M. simiae contains ESX-1 to ESX-5 genes encoding for a type-VII secretion system. Availability of the genome sequence may help depict the unique properties of this environmental, opportunistic pathogen.


PubMed | Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2011

The different taxa belonging to Anopheles gambiae complex display phenotypic differences that may impact their contribution to malaria transmission. More specifically, their susceptibility to infection, resulting from a co-evolution between parasite and vector, might be different. The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility of M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis to infection by Plasmodium falciparum.F3 progenies of Anopheles gambiae s.l. collected in Senegal were infected, using direct membrane feeding, with P. falciparum gametocyte-containing blood sampled on volunteer patients. The presence of oocysts was determined by light microscopy after 7 days, and the presence of sporozoite by ELISA after 14 days. Mosquito species and molecular forms were identified by PCR.The oocyst rate was significantly higher in the molecular S form (79.07%) than in the M form (57.81%, Fishers exact test p<0.001) and in Anopheles arabiensis (55.38%, Fishers exact test vs. S group p<0.001). Means.e.m. number of oocyst was greater in the An. gambiae S form (1.720.26) than in the An. gambiae M form (0.640.04, p<0.0001) and in the An. arabiensis group (0.580.04, vs. S group, p<0.0001). Sporozoite rate was also higher in the molecular form S (83.52%) than in form M (50.98%, Fishers exact test p<0.001) and Anopheles arabiensis 50.85%, Fishers exact test vs. S group p<0.001).Infected in the same experimental conditions, the molecular form S of An. gambiae is more susceptible to infection by P. falciparum than the molecular form M of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis.


PubMed | Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes URMITE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) | Year: 2012

The insects of the order Siphonaptera, commonly named fleas, are vectors of pathogens around the world. Our previous studies showed that 4.4% of acute febrile diseases in the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal were due to Rickettsia felis. The aim of this study was to explain the high prevalence of R. felis infections in two rural Senegalese populations by an entomological, systematic monitoring protocol. A total of 232 fleas from three species (Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, and Synosternus pallidus) were collected by candle trapping and manually from pets in the villages of Dielmo and Ndiop during the year 2010. The fleas were then tested for the presence of Bartonella and Rickettsia species. No fleas were found to be positive for any Bartonella species or R. felis. Surprisingly, we found that 91.4% of S. pallidus were infected by a new Rickettsia species, which, based on sequence analysis of gltA, ompB, and two fragments of rpoB, was found to be closely related to R. felis. The results from this study did not explain the high incidence of R. felis infections in these Senegalese populations.

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