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Davoust B.,Aix - Marseille University | de Biasi C.,British Petroleum | Demoncheaux J.-P.,British Petroleum | Diatta G.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

Human hepatic capillariosis due to Calodium hepaticum is rarely described in Africa, probably because of the lack of diagnosis tools. However, it is known that the animal reservoir is made up of rodents. During a study performed on 24 black rats (Rattus rattus) trapped in Rethy (CongoDR) and 20 Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) in Dakar (Senegal), macroscopic and histological hepatic lesions of capillariosis were found in 8 of these rodents (3 in Rethy and 5 in Dakar). These results led us to propose, besides hygiene measures, an epidemiologic survey of this serious parasitosis, particularly in children, in the course of serological and/or coproscopic investigations. © 2014, Springer-Verlag France.


Pascual A.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of Marseille | Basco L.K.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Baret E.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of Marseille | Amalvict R.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees Antenne Of Marseille | And 4 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cultivation system in which the proper atmospheric conditions for growing Plasmodium falciparum parasites were maintained in a sealed bag. The Genbag® system associated with the atmospheric generators for capnophilic bacteria Genbag CO2® was used for in vitro susceptibility test of nine standard anti-malarial drugs and compared to standard incubator conditions. Methods. The susceptibility of 36 pre-identified parasite strains from a wide panel of countries was assessed for nine standard anti-malarial drugs (chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, lumefantrine, dihydroartemisinin, atovaquone and pyrimethamine) by the standard 42-hour 3H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition method using the Genbag CO2® system and compared to controlled incubator conditions (5% CO2and 10% O2). Results: The counts per minute values in the control wells in incubator atmospheric conditions (5% CO2and 10% O2) were significantly higher than those of Genbag® conditions (2738 cpm vs 2282 cpm, p < 0.0001). The geometric mean IC50estimated under the incubator atmospheric conditions was significantly lower for atovaquone (1.2 vs 2.1 nM, p = 0.0011) and higher for the quinolines: chloroquine (127 vs 94 nM, p < 0.0001), quinine (580 vs 439 nM, p < 0.0001), monodesethylamodiaquine (41.4 vs 31.8 nM, p < 0.0001), mefloquine (57.5 vs 49.7 nM, p = 0.0011) and lumefantrine (23.8 vs 21.2 nM, p = 0.0044). There was no significant difference of IC 50between the 2 conditions for dihydroartemisinin, doxycycline and pyrimethamine. To reduce this difference in term of anti-malarial susceptibility, a specific cut-off was estimated for each drug under Genbag® conditions by regression. The cut-off was estimated at 77 nM for chloroquine (vs 100 nM in 10% O2), 611 nM for quinine (vs 800 nM), 30 nM for mefloquine (vs 30 nM), 61 nM for monodesethylamodiaquine (vs 80 nM) and 1729 nM for pyrimethamine (vs 2000 nM). Conclusions: The atmospheric generators for capnophilic bacteria Genbag CO2® is an appropriate technology that can be transferred to the field for epidemiological surveys of drug-resistant malaria. The present data suggest the importance of the gas mixture on in vitro microtest results for anti-malarial drugs and the importance of determining the microtest conditions before comparing and analysing the data from different laboratories and concluding on malaria resistance. © 2011 Pascual et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Davoust B.,Aix - Marseille University | Mediannikov O.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Roqueplo C.,British Petroleum | Perret C.,Agence nationale de securite sanitaire de lalimentation | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals’ sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals’ sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal. © 2014, Springer-Verlag France.


Sougoufara S.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Sougoufara S.,British Petroleum | Diedhiou S.M.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Diedhiou S.M.,British Petroleum | And 8 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Malaria control is mainly based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. The efficacy of these tools depends on the behaviour of mosquitoes, which varies by species. With resistance to insecticides, mosquitoes adapt their behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction. The aim of this study was to assess the biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus after the implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods. A study was conducted in Dielmo, a rural Senegalese village, after a second massive deployment of LLINs in July 2011. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch and by pyrethrum spray catch monthly between July 2011 and April 2013. Anophelines were identified by stereomicroscope and sub-species by PCR. The presence of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum and the blood meal origin were detected by ELISA. Results: Anopheles funestus showed a behavioural change in biting activity after introduction of LLINs, remaining anthropophilic and endophilic, while adopting diurnal feeding, essentially on humans. Six times more An. funestus were captured in broad daylight than at night. Only one infected mosquito was found during day capture. The mean of day CSP rate was 1.28% while no positive An. funestus was found in night captures. Conclusion: Mosquito behaviour is an essential component for assessing vectorial capacity to transmit malaria. The emergence of new behavioural patterns of mosquitoes may significantly increase the risk for malaria transmission and represents a new challenge for malaria control. Additional vector control strategies are, therefore, necessary. © 2014 Sougoufara et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Socolovschi C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieus es et Tropicales Emergentes | Mediannikov O.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieus es et Tropicales Emergentes | Sokhna C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Tall A.,Institute Pasteur Of Dakar | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

During November 2008-July 2009, we investigated the origin of unknown fever in Senegalese patients with a negative malaria test result, focusing on potential rickettsial infection. Using molecular tools, we found evidence for Rick-ettsia felis-associated illness in the initial days of infection in febrile Senegalese patients without malaria.

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