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Socolovschi C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieus es et Tropicales Emergentes | Mediannikov O.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieus es et Tropicales Emergentes | Sokhna C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Tall A.,Institute Pasteur Of Dakar | And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

During November 2008-July 2009, we investigated the origin of unknown fever in Senegalese patients with a negative malaria test result, focusing on potential rickettsial infection. Using molecular tools, we found evidence for Rick-ettsia felis-associated illness in the initial days of infection in febrile Senegalese patients without malaria.

Wurtz N.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Mint Lekweiry K.,University of Nouakchott | Mint Lekweiry K.,Cadi Ayyad University | Bogreau H.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | And 10 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Duffy blood group polymorphisms are important in areas where Plasmodium vivax is present because this surface antigen is thought to act as a key receptor for this parasite. In the present study, Duffy blood group genotyping was performed in febrile uninfected and P. vivax-infected patients living in the city of Nouakchott, Mauritania. Methods. Plasmodium vivax was identified by real-time PCR. The Duffy blood group genotypes were determined by standard PCR followed by sequencing of the promoter region and exon 2 of the Duffy gene in 277 febrile individuals. Fisher's exact test was performed in order to assess the significance of variables. Results: In the Moorish population, a high frequency of the FYBES/FYBES genotype was observed in uninfected individuals (27.8%), whereas no P. vivax-infected patient had this genotype. This was followed by a high level of FYA/FYB, FYB/FYB, FYB/FYBES and FYA/FYBES genotype frequencies, both in the P. vivax-infected and uninfected patients. In other ethnic groups (Poular, Soninke, Wolof), only the FYBES/FYBES genotype was found in uninfected patients, whereas the FYA/FYBES genotype was observed in two P. vivax-infected patients. In addition, one patient belonging to the Wolof ethnic group presented the FYBES/FYBES genotype and was infected by P. vivax. Conclusions: This study presents the Duffy blood group polymorphisms in Nouakchott City and demonstrates that in Mauritania, P. vivax is able to infect Duffy-negative patients. Further studies are necessary to identify the process that enables this Duffy-independent P. vivax invasion of human red blood cells. © 2011 Wurtz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sougoufara S.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Sougoufara S.,British Petroleum | Diedhiou S.M.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Diedhiou S.M.,British Petroleum | And 8 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Malaria control is mainly based on indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. The efficacy of these tools depends on the behaviour of mosquitoes, which varies by species. With resistance to insecticides, mosquitoes adapt their behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction. The aim of this study was to assess the biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus after the implementation of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods. A study was conducted in Dielmo, a rural Senegalese village, after a second massive deployment of LLINs in July 2011. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch and by pyrethrum spray catch monthly between July 2011 and April 2013. Anophelines were identified by stereomicroscope and sub-species by PCR. The presence of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum and the blood meal origin were detected by ELISA. Results: Anopheles funestus showed a behavioural change in biting activity after introduction of LLINs, remaining anthropophilic and endophilic, while adopting diurnal feeding, essentially on humans. Six times more An. funestus were captured in broad daylight than at night. Only one infected mosquito was found during day capture. The mean of day CSP rate was 1.28% while no positive An. funestus was found in night captures. Conclusion: Mosquito behaviour is an essential component for assessing vectorial capacity to transmit malaria. The emergence of new behavioural patterns of mosquitoes may significantly increase the risk for malaria transmission and represents a new challenge for malaria control. Additional vector control strategies are, therefore, necessary. © 2014 Sougoufara et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | British Petroleum, Aix - Marseille University, National Veterinary School of Alfort and Unite de recherche sur les maladies infectieuses et tropicales emergentes
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin de la Societe de pathologie exotique (1990) | Year: 2016

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal.

Vellaiswamy M.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Campagna B.,University of Monastir | Raoult D.,Aix - Marseille University | Raoult D.,French National Center for Scientific Research
New Microbiologica | Year: 2011

Rickettsia conorii, the etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, belongs to the spotted fever group of Rickettsia. It is an obligate intracellular bacterium that grows within the cytoplasm of its eukaryotic host cells. It is motile in the cytoplasm of infected cells and RickA is reported as critical protein in this aspect. However, the subcellular localization of RickA remains uncertain. We describe a simple method allowing RickA protein to be localized by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By using IFA we showed the global expression of surface protein RickA in R. conorii organisms. The TEM results showed that RickA is widely expressed over the entire bacterial surface of R. conorii.

Balleydier E.,Institute of Veille Sanitaire | Camuset G.,University of Reunion Island | Socolovschi C.,Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes | Moiton M.-P.,University of Reunion Island | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011– January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin © Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

Davoust B.,Aix - Marseille University | de Biasi C.,British Petroleum | Demoncheaux J.-P.,British Petroleum | Diatta G.,Unite de recherche sur les maladies infectieuses et tropicales emergentes | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2014

Human hepatic capillariosis due to Calodium hepaticum is rarely described in Africa, probably because of the lack of diagnosis tools. However, it is known that the animal reservoir is made up of rodents. During a study performed on 24 black rats (Rattus rattus) trapped in Rethy (CongoDR) and 20 Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) in Dakar (Senegal), macroscopic and histological hepatic lesions of capillariosis were found in 8 of these rodents (3 in Rethy and 5 in Dakar). These results led us to propose, besides hygiene measures, an epidemiologic survey of this serious parasitosis, particularly in children, in the course of serological and/or coproscopic investigations. © 2014, Springer-Verlag France.

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