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Kergoat G.J.,Montpellier SupAgro | Prowell D.P.,Louisiana State University | Le Ru B.P.,Unite de Recherche IRD 072 | Mitchell A.,Research and Collections | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Thanks to the recent development of integrative approaches that combine dated phylogenies with models of biogeographic evolution, it is becoming more feasible to assess the roles of dispersal and vicariance in creating complex patterns of geographical distribution. However, the historical biogeography of taxa with good dispersal abilities, like birds or flying insects, still remains largely unknown because of the lack of complete phylogenies accompanied by robust estimates of divergence times. In this study, we investigate the evolution and historical biogeography of the globally distributed pest genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using complete taxon sampling and an extensive set of analyses. Through the analysis of a combined morphological and molecular dataset, we provide the first robust phylogenetic framework for this widespread and economically important group of moths. Historical biogeography approaches indicate that dispersal events have been the driving force in the biogeographic history of the group. One of the most interesting findings of this study is the probable occurrence of two symmetric long-distance dispersal events between the Afrotropical and the Neotropical region, which appear to have occurred in the late Miocene. Even more remarkably, our dated phylogenies reveal that the diversification of the clade that includes specialist grass feeders has followed closely the expansion of grasslands in the Miocene, similar to the adaptive radiation of specialist grazing mammals during the same period. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Le Ru B.P.,Unite de Recherche IRD 072 | Le Ru B.P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Le Ru B.P.,University Paris - Sud | Delobel A.,French Natural History Museum | And 3 more authors.

A small group of six morphologically related seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) belonging to the Conicobruchus genus is reviewed. Species in this group for which host-plants are known feed on various species of Crotalaria (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae). Here we provide diagnoses and a dichotomous key for all six species. The following synonymies are proposed: Conicobruchus cicatricosus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus cicatricosus pallidioripennis Pic, 1941) syn. nov.; Conicobruchus strangulatus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus hargreavesi Pic, 1933) syn. nov. The corresponding Conicobruchus strangulatus species group is hereby designated. New host-plant data are also included, which correspond to the results of recent collections of legume pods in East Africa. In addition we carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses on a representative sampling of Conicobruchus species (including the six species of interest). The latter allow us to assess the monophyly of the group of interest and to unravel their evolutionary relationships. Molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicate that at least two lineages of Conicobruchus successfully shifted toward Crotalarieae during the course of their diversification. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Delobel A.,French Natural History Museum | Le Ru B.,Unite de Recherche IRD 072 | Le Ru B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Le Ru B.,University Paris - Sud | And 3 more authors.

Bruchidius Schilsky is a large paraphyletic genus of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) which consists of multiple lineages that are usually associated with narrow sets of host-plants. In this study we focus on a group that mostly develops on wattle trees (acacias) belonging to the genus Vachellia Wight & Arn. This group originally included nine species and was designated as the Bruchidius centromaculatus (Allard) species group, but recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that these species belong to a much wider group of species with similar morphologies. For reasons of anteriority we call this enlarged group Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus). Here we review the morphology of species in this group and provide new diagnoses and ecological data for 10 species. The following combinations and synonymies are proposed: Bruchidius tanaensis (Pic, 1921) (= Bruchus tanaensis Pic, 1921) comb. nov. and Bruchidius albosparsus (Fåhraeus, 1839) (= Bruchus spadiceus Fåhraeus, 1839) syn. nov. Four new species are also described: B. eminingensis sp. nov., B. gerrardiicola sp. nov., B. glomeratus sp. nov. and B. haladai sp. nov. Finally we carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses on a multi-marker dataset of 59 specimens and 35 species, including 14 species from the group. The resulting trees allow us to confirm the monophyly of the group of interest and provide a more detailed picture of their evolutionary relationships. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Khadioli N.,Icipe African Insect science for Food and Health | Khadioli N.,University of Nairobi | Tonnang Z.E.H.,Icipe African Insect science for Food and Health | Ong'amo G.,Icipe African Insect science for Food and Health | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology

The influence of temperature on the development, mortality, fecundity and life table parameters of two important noctuid African cereal pests, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis was investigated under laboratory conditions. Experiments were carried out with larvae reared on artificial diet under eight constant temperatures (12°C, 15°C, 18°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C, 30°C and 35°C) and a 12L:12D photoperiod. Life table parameters were calculated using Insect Life Cycle Modelling (ILCYM) software. At 12°C and 35°C insects failed to develop. Mean development time for both species decreased with increasing temperature for all stages. Between 15°C and 30°C, mean larvae development time is divided by four for both species and adult mean longevity is divided by 1.5 and 2.5, for both sexes of S. calamistis and B. fusca, respectively. Fecundity varied according to temperature; the highest was estimated at 22°C and 24°C for B. fusca and S. calamistis, respectively. The lower thermal threshold for B. fusca and S. calamistis was, respectively, 6°C and 9°C, while the upper thermal threshold was 31°C and 32°C, respectively. The highest intrinsic rate of natural increase for B. fusca was obtained at 25°C while for S. calamistis it was obtained at 28°C. The highest net reproduction was obtained at 25°C for both species, but it was higher for S. calamistis than for B. fusca. The shortest population doubling time was observed at 25°C for B. fusca and at 28°C for S. calamistis. The optimum temperature range for development of both species was 25-28°C. The lower lower thermal threshold found for B. fusca than for S. calamistis and the higher upper thermal threshold found for S. calamistis than for B. fusca explain in part the observed distribution of both species in sub-Saharan Africa with S. calamistis occurring in all the agro-ecological zones but being usually more common than B. fusca in savannah lowland and B. fusca reported mainly from mid and high altitude areas. © 2014 Association of Applied Biologists. Source

Moyal P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Le Ru B.,Unite de Recherche IRD 072 | Conlong D.,South African Sugarcane Research Institute | Conlong D.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of Entomological Research

Currently, the systematics of the African noctuid stem borers of the subtribe Sesamiina, which include major pests of cereals, is confused. In addition, their ecology is poorly known, as are the factors influencing their evolution. In this paper, we address these shortcomings for two genera of the Sesamiina, Sciomesa Tams & Bowden and Carelis Bowden. Mixed Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, which included their host plants and two mitochondrial genes, showed the genus Sciomesa to be polyphyletic. Two new genera were created, Pirateolea and Feraxinia. The genus Carelis proved to be paraphyletic and was subdivided into two sub-genera. The genera Sciomesa, Carelis and Pirateolea (named the 'Sciomesa genus group') share morphological traits, and the phylogenetic analysis showed that they had a common ancestor living on Cyperaceae and that they were distant from the genus Feraxinia belonging to another clade which had an ancestor living on Poaceae. Seven new species were described: Sciomesa gnosia sp. n., Sciomesia bua sp. n., Pirateolea nola gen. n, sp. n., Feraxinia serena gen. n., sp. n., Carelis australis sp. n., Carelis transversa sp. n. and Carelis agnae sp. n. Ten species were sunk as synonyms: Sciomesa mesoscia (Hampson) syn. n., Sciomesa mirifica Laporte syn. n., Sciomesa constantini Laporte syn. n. and Sciomesa etchecopari Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Sciomesa mesophaea (Aurivillius); Acrapex sparsipucta Laporte syn. n. is a synonym of Sciomesa excelsa (Laporte) comb. n.; Acrapex congitae Laporte syn. n., Sesamia minuta Laporte syn. n. and Sesamia minuscula Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Sciomesa boulardi (Laporte) comb. n.; Acrapex bryae Laporte syn. n. and Acrapex fayei Laporte syn. n. are synonyms of Feraxinia jemjemensis (Laporte) comb. n. Eleven new combinations were created: Sciomesa excelsa (Laporte) comb. n., Sciomesa boulardi (Laporte) comb. n., Sciomesa punctipennis (Krüger) comb. n., Pirateolea piscator (Fletcher) comb. n., Pirateolea argocyma (Fletcher) comb. n., Pirateolea cyclophora (Fletcher) comb. n., Pirateolea ochroneura (Fletcher) comb. n., Pirateolea funebris (Krüger) comb. n., Feraxinia nyei (Fletcher) comb. n., Feraxinia jemjemensis (Laporte) comb. n. and Carelis biluma (Nye) comb. n. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

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