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Galinier R.,CNRS Host-Pathogen-Environment Interactions Laboratory | van Beurden S.,Central Veterinary Institute | van Beurden S.,University Utrecht | Amilhat E.,CNRS Training and Research Center on Mediterranean Environments | And 9 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2012

Eel virus European X (EVEX) was first isolated from diseased European eel Anguilla anguilla in Japan at the end of seventies. The virus was tentatively classified into the Rhabdoviridae family on the basis of morphology and serological cross reactivity. This family of viruses is organized into six genera and currently comprises approximately 200 members, many of which are still unassigned because of the lack of molecular data. This work presents the morphological, biochemical and genetic characterizations of EVEX, and proposes a taxonomic classification for this virus. We provide its complete genome sequence, plus a comprehensive sequence comparison between isolates from different geographical origins. The genome encodes the five classical structural proteins plus an overlapping open reading frame in the phosphoprotein gene, coding for a putative C protein. Phylogenic relationship with other rhabdoviruses indicates that EVEX is most closely related to the Vesiculovirus genus and shares the highest identity with trout rhabdovirus 903/87. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Haddad-Boubaker S.,Tunis el Manar University | Bigarre L.,Unite de Pathologie Virale des Poissons | Bouzgarou N.,Tunis el Manar University | Megdich A.,Tunis el Manar University | And 3 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2013

Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a serious viral disease affecting farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Only scarce molecular data are available on the disease-causing betanodavirus populations in Tunisia. Therefore, we carried out the first molecular survey of betanodaviruses in farmed sea bass and sea bream (Sparus aurata) along the Tunisian coasts. Among 81 samples from five farms, 20 tested positive with RT-PCR, not only in clinical cases but also in asymptomatic fish before and during outbreaks. Positive fish were found in all farms, except in one farm investigated in the south of Tunisia. Sequencing the fragments of both genomic components (RNA1 and RNA2) in 16 isolates revealed that the Tunisian viruses were related to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype. Furthermore, the newly sequenced isolates were generally highly related to one another suggesting a recent common ancestor. They also showed high identities with other isolates obtained from wild fishes in the Mediterranean, but were slightly more divergent from strains recently obtained from farmed fishes in the Mediterranean. The poor genetic diversity of the viral population along the Tunisian coasts is striking. One hypothesis is that it is the result of the maintenance of a homogenous genetic pool among infected wild fish, groupers for instance and subsequent dissemination to farmed fish over the seasons. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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