Tatton-Brown K.,Institute of Cancer Research |
Murray A.,Institute of Cancer Research |
Hanks S.,Institute of Cancer Research |
Douglas J.,Institute of Cancer Research |
And 29 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013
Weaver syndrome, first described in 1974, is characterized by tall stature, a typical facial appearance, and variable intellectual disability. In 2011, mutations in the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, were shown to cause Weaver syndrome. To date, we have identified 48 individuals with EZH2 mutations. The mutations were primarily missense mutations occurring throughout the gene, with some clustering in the SET domain (12/48). Truncating mutations were uncommon (4/48) and only identified in the final exon, after the SET domain. Through analyses of clinical data and facial photographs of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals, we have shown that the facial features can be subtle and the clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome is thus challenging, especially in older individuals. However, tall stature is very common, reported in >90% of affected individuals. Intellectual disability is also common, present in ~80%, but is highly variable and frequently mild. Additional clinical features which may help in stratifying individuals to EZH2 mutation testing include camptodactyly, soft, doughy skin, umbilical hernia, and a low, hoarse cry. Considerable phenotypic overlap between Sotos and Weaver syndromes is also evident. The identification of an EZH2 mutation can therefore provide an objective means of confirming a subtle presentation of Weaver syndrome and/or distinguishing Weaver and Sotos syndromes. As mutation testing becomes increasingly accessible and larger numbers of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals are identified, knowledge of the clinical spectrum and prognostic implications of EZH2 mutations should improve. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source
Plaisancie J.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
Bailleul-Forestier I.,University Paul Sabatier |
Gaston V.,Toulouse University Hospital Center |
Vaysse F.,University Paul Sabatier |
And 21 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013
Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders that have in common abnormal development of ectodermal derivatives. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by abnormal development of eccrine sweat glands, hair, and teeth. The X-linked form of the disease, caused by mutations in the EDA gene, represents the majority of patients with the hypohidrotic form. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms are occasionally seen, and result from mutations in at least three genes (WNT10A, EDAR, or more rarely EDARADD). We have screened for mutations in EDAR (commonly involved in the hypohidrotic form) and WNT10A (involved in a wide spectrum of ED and in isolated hypodontia) in a cohort of 36 patients referred for EDA molecular screening, which failed to identify any mutation. We identified eight EDAR mutations in five patients (two with homozygous mutations, one with compound heterozygous mutations, and two with heterozygous mutation), four of which were novel variants. We identified 28 WNT10A mutations in 16 patients (5 with homozygous mutations, 7 with compound heterozygous mutations, and 4 with heterozygous mutations), seven of which were novel variants. Our study allows a more precise definition of the phenotypic spectrum associated with EDAR and WNT10A mutations and underlines the importance of the implication of WNT10A among patients with ED. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source
Piard J.,University of Burgundy |
Piard J.,Besancon University Hospital Center |
Aral B.,University of Burgundy |
Vabres P.,University of Burgundy |
And 43 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2015
Three overlapping conditions, namely Rothmund-Thomson (RTS), Baller-Gerold (BGS) and RAPADILINO syndromes, have been attributed to RECQL4 mutations. Differential diagnoses depend on the clinical presentation, but the numbers of known genes remain low, leading to the widespread prescription of RECQL4 sequencing. The aim of our study was therefore to determine the best clinical indicators for the presence of RECQL4 mutations in a series of 39 patients referred for RECQL4 molecular analysis and belonging to the RTS (27 cases) and BGS (12 cases) spectrum. One or two deleterious RECQL4 mutations were found in 10/27 patients referred for RTS diagnosis. Clinical and molecular reevaluation led to a different diagnosis in 7/17 negative cases, including Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia, hereditary sclerosing poikiloderma, and craniosynostosis/anal anomalies/porokeratosis. No RECQL4 mutations were found in the BGS group without poikiloderma, confirming that RECQL4 sequencing was not indicated in this phenotype. One chromosomal abnormality and one TWIST mutation was found in this cohort. This study highlights the search for differential diagnoses before the prescription of RECQL4 sequencing in this clinically heterogeneous group. The combination of clinically defined subgroups and next-generation sequencing will hopefully bring to light new molecular bases of syndromes with poikiloderma, as well as BGS without poikiloderma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source
Huber C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Faqeih E.A.,King Fahad Medical City |
Bartholdi D.,University of Zurich |
Bole-Feysot C.,Plateforme de Genomique |
And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013
Opsismodysplasia (OPS) is a severe autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by pre- and postnatal micromelia with extremely short hands and feet. The main radiological features are severe platyspondyly, squared metacarpals, delayed skeletal ossification, and metaphyseal cupping. In order to identify mutations causing OPS, a total of 16 cases (7 terminated pregnancies and 9 postnatal cases) from 10 unrelated families were included in this study. We performed exome sequencing in three cases from three unrelated families and only one gene was found to harbor mutations in all three cases: inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1). Screening INPPL1 in the remaining cases identified a total of 12 distinct INPPL1 mutations in the 10 families, present at the homozygote state in 7 consanguinous families and at the compound heterozygote state in the 3 remaining families. Most mutations (6/12) resulted in premature stop codons, 2/12 were splice site, and 4/12 were missense mutations located in the catalytic domain, 5-phosphatase. INPPL1 belongs to the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase family, a family of signal-modulating enzymes that govern a plethora of cellular functions by regulating the levels of specific phosphoinositides. Our finding of INPPL1 mutations in OPS, a severe spondylodysplastic dysplasia with major growth plate disorganization, supports a key and specific role of this enzyme in endochondral ossification. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source
Demurger F.,Service de Genetique Clinique |
Ichkou A.,Hopital Necker Enfants Malades |
Mougou-Zerelli S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Le Merrer M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
And 60 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015
The phenotypic spectrum of GLI3 mutations includes autosomal dominant Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) and Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS). PHS was first described as a lethal condition associating hypothalamic hamartoma, postaxial or central polydactyly, anal atresia and bifid epiglottis. Typical GCPS combines polysyndactyly of hands and feet and craniofacial features. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been found both for the location and the nature of GLI3 mutations, highlighting the bifunctional nature of GLI3 during development. Here we report on the molecular and clinical study of 76 cases from 55 families with either a GLI3 mutation (49 GCPS and 21 PHS), or a large deletion encompassing the GLI3 gene (6 GCPS cases). Most of mutations are novel and consistent with the previously reported genotype-phenotype correlation. Our results also show a correlation between the location of the mutation and abnormal corpus callosum observed in some patients with GCPS. Fetal PHS observations emphasize on the possible lethality of GLI3 mutations and extend the phenotypic spectrum of malformations such as agnathia and reductional limbs defects. GLI3 expression studied by in situ hybridization during human development confirms its early expression in target tissues. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source