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Esparcia O.,Servei de Microbiologia | Esparcia O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Montemayor M.,Servei de Microbiologia | Ginovart G.,Servei de Pediatria | And 11 more authors.
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2011

The diagnostic accuracy of a 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene-based molecular technique for bacterial meningitis (BM), early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is evaluated. The molecular approach gave better results for BM diagnosis: sensitivity (S) was 90.6% compared to 78.1% for the bacterial culture. Percentages of cases correctly diagnosed (CCD) were 91.7% and 80.6%, respectively. For EONS diagnosis, S was 60.0% for the molecular approach and 70.0% for the bacterial culture; and CCD was 95.2% and 96.4%, respectively. For SPB diagnosis, the molecular approach gave notably poorer results than the bacterial cultures. S and CCD were 48.4% and 56.4% for the molecular approach and 80.6% and 89.1% for bacterial cultures. Nevertheless, bacterial DNA was detected in 53.3% of culture-negative samples. Accuracy of the 16S rDNA PCR approach differs depending on the sample, the microorganisms involved, the expected bacterial load, and the presence of bacterial DNA other than that from the pathogen implied in the infectious disease. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Prim N.,Servei de Microbiologia | Benito N.,Unitat de Malalties Infeccioses | Benito N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Montes G.,Servei de Neurocirurgia | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2013

We report a case of human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) meningoencephalitis in a patient who underwent trigeminal neuralgia surgery. Although this surgery has been reported to increase the risk of mucocutaneous HHV-1 recurrence, to our knowledge, an association between trigeminal surgery and HHV-1 encephalitis has not been previously described. © 2013 The British Infection Association.


Matas M.,University of the Balearic Islands | Picornell A.,University of the Balearic Islands | Cifuentes C.,Unitat de Malalties Infeccioses | Payeras A.,Unitat de Malalties Infeccioses | And 6 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most important cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease leading to liver transplantation worldwide. Chronic infection by HCV causes liver fibrosis, which is accelerated by unknown mechanisms in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) coinfection. Although the genetic variability of both HCV and HIV has been extensively studied in the context of monoinfections, more limited data is available regarding HCV-HIV coinfection. HCV disease progression among HIV coinfected patients may be influenced not only by demographic, epidemiological and clinical background variables, but also by genetic differences in infecting viruses. To explore this issue, we carried out a study in coinfected patients trying to associate the degree of liver damage to several demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics of the patients, and also to the genetic variability of HCV between patients. For this purpose, we have applied different statistical techniques including the statistical generalized linear model (GLM) framework. The stage of fibrosis was indirectly measured by noninvasive means using the indexes Forns, APRI and FIB-4. HCV genetic variability between patients was estimated by sequencing the core region and by reconstructions of consensus maximum parsimony phylogenetic trees with 50% and 75% bootstrap majority rules. The results showed a direct correlation of the fibrosis biomarkers with the AST/ALT ratio, MoftIDU and with 3a HCV genotype clades, among others. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Matas M.,University of the Balearic Islands | Picornell A.,University of the Balearic Islands | Cifuentes C.,Unitat de Malalties Infeccioses | Payeras A.,Unitat de Malalties Infeccioses | And 13 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the main cause of advanced and end-stage liver disease world-wide, and an important factor of morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) co-infected individuals. Whereas the genetic variability of HCV has been studied extensively in monoinfected patients, comprehensive analyses of both patient and virus characteristics are still scarce in HCV/HIV co-infection. In order to find correlates for liver damage, we sought to analyze demographic, epidemiological and clinical features of HCV/HIV co-infected patients along with the genetic makeup of HCV (viral subtypes and lineage studied by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the NS5B region). We used the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) methodology in order to integrate data from the virus and the infected host to find predictors for liver damage. The degree of liver disease was evaluated indirectly by means of two indexes (APRI and FIB-4) and accounting for the time since infection, to estimate fibrosis progression rates. Our analyses identified a reduced number of variables (both from the virus and the host) implicated in liver damage, which included the stage of HIV infection, levels of gamma-glutamil transferase and cholesterol, and some distinct HCV phylogenetic clades. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Gurgui M.,Unitat de Malalties Infeccioses | Gurgui M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gurgui M.,A+ Network | Sanchez F.,Servei de Microbiologia | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2011

In July 2002, Blastoschizomyces capitatus was isolated from four neutropenic patients in a haematology unit. Two patients died due to disseminated infection while the other two had oropharyngeal colonisation. Nosocomial acquisition of the fungus was suspected and epidemiological and environmental studies were undertaken. To determine the potential source for the acquisition of the fungus, epidemiological relationships between the patients were investigated. We performed surveillance cultures on all patients and took environmental cultures of air, inanimate surfaces, food samples, blood products and chemotherapy drugs. No direct contact transmission between patients was found and B. capitatus was isolated only in vacuum flasks used for breakfast milk distribution. All isolates were compared by four independent molecular typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, genomic DNA restriction endonuclease analysis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, and polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting using a single primer specific for one minisatellite or two microsatellite DNAs. Milk vacuum flasks and clinical strains were genetically indistinguishable by all typing techniques. Milk vacuum flasks were withdrawn from all hospital units and no further B. capitatus infection was detected. Our findings suggest that clonal dissemination of a single strain of B. capitatus from vacuum flasks used for milk distribution was responsible for this nosocomial outbreak in the haematological unit. © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society.

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