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Chincarini G.,National institute for astrophysics | Chincarini G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Mao J.,National institute for astrophysics | Mao J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 14 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

We present an updated catalogue of 113 X-ray flares detected by Swift in the ∼33 per cent of the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray burst (GRB). 43 flares have a measured redshift. For the first time the analysis is performed in four different X-ray energy bands, allowing us to constrain the evolution of the flare temporal properties with energy. We find that flares are narrower at higher energies: their width follows a power-law relation w ∝ E-0.5 reminiscent of the prompt emission. Flares are asymmetric structures, with a decay time which is twice the rise time on average. Both time-scales linearly evolve with time, giving rise to a constant rise-to-decay ratio: this implies that both time-scales are stretched by the same factor. As a consequence, the flare width linearly evolves with time to larger values: this is a key point that clearly distinguishes the flare from the GRB prompt emission. The flare 0.3-10 keV peak luminosity decreases with time, following a power-law behaviour with large scatter: Lpk ∝ t-2.7±0.5 pk. When multiple flares are present, a global softening trend is established: each flare is on average softer than the previous one. The 0.3-10 keV isotropic energy distribution is a lognormal peaked at 1051 erg, with a possible excess at low energies. The flare average spectral energy distribution is found to be a power law with spectral energy index β ∼ 1.1. These results confirmed that the flares are tightly linked to the prompt emission. However, after considering various models we conclude that no model is currently able to account for the entire set of observations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS. Source


Del Monte E.,Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica | Barbiellini G.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Barbiellini G.,University of Trieste | Donnarumma I.,Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica | And 59 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2011

The observation of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) in the gamma ray band has been advanced by the AGILE and Fermi satellites after the era of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. AGILE and Fermi are showing that the GeV-bright GRBs share a set of common features, particularly the high fluence from the keV up to the GeV energy bands, the high value of the minimum Lorentz factor, an extended emission of gamma rays, which is often delayed with respect to lower energies, and finally the possible multiple spectral components. GRB 100724B, localised in a joint effort by Fermi and the InterPlanetary Newtork, is the brightest burst detected in gamma rays so far by AGILE. Characteristic features of GRB 100724B are the simultaneous emissions at MeV and GeV, without delayed onset or any time lag as shown by the analysis of the cross correlation function, and the significant spectral evolution in hard X-rays over the event duration. In this paper we show the analysis of the AGILE data of GRB 100724B and discuss its features in the context of the bursts observed so far in gamma rays and the recently proposed models. © 2011 ESO. Source


Del Monte E.,Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica | Feroci M.,Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica | Evangelista Y.,Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica | Evangelista Y.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 67 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Context. Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) is a high mass X-ray binary system, known to be a black hole candidate and one of the brightest sources in the X-ray sky, which shows both variability on all timescales and frequent flares. The source spends most of the time in a hard spectral state, dominated by a power-law emission, with occasional transitions to the soft and intermediate states, where a strong blackbody component emerges. Aims. We present the observation of Cyg X-1 in a hard spectral state performed during the AGILE science verification phase and observing cycle 1 in hard X-rays (with SuperAGILE) and gamma rays (with the gamma ray imaging detector) and lasting for about 160 days with a live time of ∼6 Ms. Methods. We investigated the variability of Cyg X-1 in hard X-rays on different timescales, from ∼300 s up to one day, and we applied different tools of timing analysis, such as the autocorrelation function, the first-order structure function, and the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, to our data (from SuperAGILE) and to the simultaneous data in soft X-rays (from RXTE/ASM). We concluded our investigation with a search for emission in the energy range above 100 MeV with the maximum likelihood technique. Results. In the hard X-ray band, the flux of Cyg X-1 shows its typical erratic fluctuations on all timescales with variations of about a factor of two that do not significantly affect the shape of the energy spectrum. From the first-order structure function, we find that the X-ray emission of Cyg X-1 is characterized by antipersistence (anticorrelation in the time series, with an increase in the emission likely followed by a decrease), indicative of a negative feedback mechanism at work. In the gamma ray data a statistically significant point-like source at the position of Cyg X-1 is not found, and the upper limit on the flux is 5 × 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1 over the whole observation (160 days). Finally we compared our upper limit in gamma rays with the expectation of various models of the Cyg X-1 emission, both of hadronic and leptonic origin, in the GeV-TeV band. Conclusions. The time history of Cyg X-1 in the hard X-ray band over 13 months (not continuous) is shown. Different analysis tools do not provide fully converging results of the characteristic timescales in the system, suggesting that the timescales found in the structure function are not intrinsic to the physics of the source. While Cyg X-1 is not detected in gamma rays, our upper limit is a factor of two lower than the EGRET one and is compatible with the extrapolation of the flux measured by COMPTEL in the same spectral state. © 2010 ESO. Source

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