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Cappa M.,Unita Operativa di Endocrinologia | Bizzarri C.,Unita Operativa di Endocrinologia | Petroni A.,University of Milan | Carta G.,University of Cagliari | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2012

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare inherited demyelinating disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, mainly hexacosanoic acid (26:0), due to a mutation of the gene encoding for a peroxisomal membrane protein. The only available, and partially effective, therapeutic treatment consists of dietary intake of a 4:1 mixture of triolein and trierucin, called Lorenzo's oil (LO), targeted to inhibit the elongation of docosanoic acid (22:0) to 26:0. In this study we tested whether, besides inhibiting elongation, an enhancement of peroxisomal beta oxidation induced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), will improve somatosensory evoked potentials and modify inflammatory markers in adrenoleukodystrophy females carriers. We enrolled five heterozygous women. They received a mixture of LO (40 g/day) with CLA (5 g/day) for 2 months. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the means of plasma levels of 26:0, 26:0/22:0 ratio, modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers and somatosensory evoked potentials. Changes of fatty acid profile, and in particular CLA incorporation, were also evaluated in CSF and plasma. The results showed that CLA promptly passes the blood brain barrier and the mixture was able to lower both 26:0 and 26:0/22:0 ratio in plasma. The mixture improved somatosensory evoked potentials, which were previously found unchanged or worsened with dietary LO alone, and reduced IL-6 levels in CSF in three out of five patients. Our data suggest that the synergic activity of CLA and LO, by enhancing peroxisomal beta-oxidation and preventing 26:0 formation, improves the somatosensory evoked potentials and reduces neuroinflammation. © The Author(s) 2011.


Saponaro F.,University of Pisa | Faggiano A.,University of Naples Federico II | Grimaldi F.,SOC di Endocrinologia e Malattie Del Metabolismo | Borretta G.,Endocrinologia e Malattie Del Ricambio | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Objective To report the Italian experience on cinacalcet use following its approval by the European Medical Agency (EMA) to control hypercalcaemia in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Design Retrospective data collection from 100 patients with sporadic (sPHPT) and 35 with familial PHPT (fPHPT) followed in eight Italian centres between October 2008 and March 2011. Measurements Albumin-adjusted serum calcium, PTH, 25OHD, daily cinacalcet dose and adverse events were recorded during the follow-up (1-46 months). Results Baseline serum calcium was 2·90 ± 0·27 nmol/l in sPHPT and 2·75 ± 0·17 nmol/l in fPHPT patients (P = 0·007). The cinacalcet EMA labelling was met in 53% sPHPT and 26% fPHPT patients. High surgical risk (34%), negative preoperative imaging (19%), control of hypercalcaemia before parathyroidectomy (PTx) (24%), and refusal of PTx (19%) accounted for cinacalcet prescription in 96% of sPHPT patients. Conversely, initial treatment (34%), persistent/relapsing PHPT after surgery (31%), and refusal of PTx (14%) were the indications in 79% fPHPT patients. Cinacalcet was started at 30 mg/daily in 64% of sPHPT and 91% of fPHPT and increased until normocalcaemia was reached or side effects occurred. The final daily dose ranged between 15 and 120 mg. The majority of patients (65% of sPHPT and 80% of fPHPT) become normocalcaemic. Treatment was withdrawn in six patients because of side effects. Conclusions There is a wide heterogeneity in the prescription of cinacalcet in PHPT patients in Italy and the EMA labelling is not always followed, particularly in fPHPT patients. Cinacalcet effectively reduces serum calcium in patients with either sPHPT or fPHPT. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Zini M.,Unita Operativa di Endocrinologia
Rivista Italiana della Medicina di Laboratorio | Year: 2011

There are many risk factors for osteoporosis, such as a sedentary lifestyle, poor sun exposure, tobacco smoking, family history and some medical treatments that cause osteopoenia. The evaluation of pathological fracture risk, related to osteoporosis, is mainly based on computerized bone densitometric analysis. Laboratory tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of osteoporosis secondary to other pathologies and in evaluating bone consumption in order to prevent further mineral loss. In this review we describe the different treatments available to prevent and reduce osteopenia. © Springer 2011.


X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a rare inherited demyelinating disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, mainly hexacosanoic acid (26:0), due to a mutation of the gene encoding for a peroxisomal membrane protein. The only available, and partially effective, therapeutic treatment consists of dietary intake of a 4:1 mixture of triolein and trierucin, called Lorenzos oil (LO), targeted to inhibit the elongation of docosanoic acid (22:0) to 26:0. In this study we tested whether, besides inhibiting elongation, an enhancement of peroxisomal beta oxidation induced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), will improve somatosensory evoked potentials and modify inflammatory markers in adrenoleukodystrophy females carriers. We enrolled five heterozygous women. They received a mixture of LO (40 g/day) with CLA (5 g/day) for 2 months. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the means of plasma levels of 26:0, 26:0/22:0 ratio, modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers and somatosensory evoked potentials. Changes of fatty acid profile, and in particular CLA incorporation, were also evaluated in CSF and plasma. The results showed that CLA promptly passes the blood brain barrier and the mixture was able to lower both 26:0 and 26:0/22:0 ratio in plasma. The mixture improved somatosensory evoked potentials, which were previously found unchanged or worsened with dietary LO alone, and reduced IL-6 levels in CSF in three out of five patients. Our data suggest that the synergic activity of CLA and LO, by enhancing peroxisomal beta-oxidation and preventing 26:0 formation, improves the somatosensory evoked potentials and reduces neuroinflammation.

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