Unita Operativa di Cardiologia

Forlì, Italy

Unita Operativa di Cardiologia

Forlì, Italy

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Guella I.,University of Milan | Duga S.,University of Milan | Ardissino D.,Unita Operativa di Cardiologia | Peyvandi F.,University of Milan | And 2 more authors.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2011

Occlusive coronary thrombus formation superimposed on an atherosclerotic plaque is the ultimate event leading to myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, haemostatic proteins may represent important players in the pathogenesis of MI. It was the objective of this study to evaluate, in a comprehensive way, the role of haemostatic gene polymorphisms in predisposition to premature MI. A total of 810 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 genes were assessed for association with MI in a large cohort (1,670 males, 210 females) of Italian patients who suffered from an MI event before the age of 45, and an equal number of controls. Thirty-eight SNPs selected from the literature were genotyped using the SNPlex technology, whereas genotypes for the remaining 772 SNPs were extracted from a previous genome-wide association study. Genotypes were analysed by a standard case-control analysis corrected for classical cardiovascular risk factors, and by haplotype analysis. A weighted Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was calculated. Evidence for association with MI after covariate correction was found for 35 SNPs in 12 loci: F5, PROS1, F11, ITGA2, F12, F13A1, SERPINE1, PLAT, VWF, THBD, PROCR, and F9. The weighted GRS was constructed by including the top SNP for each of the 12 associated loci. The GRS distribution was significantly different between cases and controls, and subjects in the highest quintile had a 2.69-fold increased risk for MI compared with those in the lowest quintile. Our results suggest that a GRS, based on the combined effect of several risk alleles in different haemostatic genes, is associated with an increased risk of MI. © Schattauer 2011.


Grassi G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Seravalle G.,Instituto Auxologico Italiano | Brambilla G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Alimento M.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Background An increase in sympathetic drive to the heart and the peripheral circulation characterizes mild and severe essential hypertension. However, it remains unsettled whether sympathetic cardiovascular influences are potentiated in true resistant hypertension (RHT).Methods In 32 RHT patients treated with 4.6 ± 0.3 drugs (mean ± SEM) and aged 58.6 ± 2.1 years, 35 non-resistant treated hypertensives (HT) and 19 normotensive controls (NT), all age-matched with RHT, we measured clinic, 24-hour ambulatory and beat-to-beat blood pressures (BP), heart rate (HR, EKG), muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (MSNA, microneurography) and spontaneous baroreflex MSNA-sensitivity.Results BP values were markedly greater in RHT patients than in NT and HT (172.2 ± 1.7/100.7 ± 1.2 vs 132.1 ± 1.3/82.1 ± 0.9 and 135.5 ± 1.2/83.6 ± 0.9 mm Hg, P < 0.01). This was paralleled by a significant and marked increase in MSNA (87.8 ± 2.0 vs 46.8 ± 2.6 and 59.3 ± 1.7 and bursts/100 heartbeats, P < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis the MSNA increase observed in RHT was significantly related to hemodynamic, hormonal and metabolic variables. It was also significantly related to plasma aldosterone values as well as spontaneous baroreflex MSNA-sensitivity, which were the variables that at the multivariate analysis were more closely related to the adrenergic activation of RHT after adjustment for confounders, including antihypertensive treatment (r2partial = 0.04405 and r2partial = 0.00878, P < 0.05 for both).Conclusions These data represent the first evidence that RHT is a state of marked adrenergic overdrive, greater for magnitude than that detectable in HT. They also suggest that impaired baroreflex mechanisms, along with hemodynamic and neurohumoral factors, may be responsible for the phenomenon. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Campo G.,Cardiovascular Institute | Campo G.,LTTA Center | Guastaroba P.,Agenzia Sanitaria Regionale Regione Emilia Romagna | Marzocchi A.,University of Bologna | And 7 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2013

Background: There are limited data describing the long-term outcome of patients with concomitant COPD who develop ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: A total of 11,118 consecutive patients with STEMI enrolled in the web-based Registro Regionale Angioplastiche Emilia-Romagna (REAL) registry were followed-up and stratifi ed according to COPD presence or not. At 3-year follow-up, mortality and hospital readmissions due to myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), coronary revascularization (CR), serious bleeding, and COPD were assessed. Results: According to our criteria, 2,032 patients (18.2%) had a diagnosis of COPD. Overall, 1,829 patients (16.5%) died. COPD was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). Hospital readmissions for recurrent MI (10% vs 6.9%, P < .01), CR (22% vs 19%, P < .01), HF (10% vs 6.9%, P < .01), and SB (10% vs 6%, P < .01) were signifi cantly more frequent in patients with COPD as compared with those without. Also, hospital readmissions for COPD were more frequent in patients with a previous history of COPD as compared with those without (19% vs 3%; P < .01, respectively). Patients with a hospital readmission for COPD showed a fourfold increased risk of death (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 3.4-5.2). Finally, hospital readmissions for COPD emerged as a strong independent risk factor for recurrence of MI (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3), HF (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 4.6-7.5), and SB (HR, 3; 95% CI, 2.1-4.4). Conclusions: Patients with STEMI and concomitant COPD are at greater risk for death and hospital readmissions due to cardiovascular causes (eg, recurrent MI, HF, bleedings) than patients without COPD.


Ottani F.,Unita Operativa di Cardiologia | Latini R.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Staszewsky L.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | La Vecchia L.,Cardiologia | And 14 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2016

Background Whether cyclosporine A (CsA) has beneficial effects in reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) is debated. Objectives This study investigated whether CsA improved ST-segment resolution in a randomized, multicenter phase II study. Methods The authors randomly assigned 410 patients from 31 cardiac care units, age 63 ± 12 years, with large ST-segment elevation MI within 6 h of symptom onset, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 0 to 1 in the infarct-related artery, and committed to primary percutaneous coronary intervention, to 2.5 mg/kg intravenous CsA (n = 207) or control (n = 203) groups. The primary endpoint was incidence of ≥70% ST-segment resolution 60 min after TIMI flow grade 3. Secondary endpoints included high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) on day 4, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and clinical events at 6-month follow-up. Results Time from symptom onset to first antegrade flow was 180 ± 67 min; a median of 5 electrocardiography leads showed ST-segment deviation (quartile [Q]1 to Q3: 4 to 6); 49.8% of MIs were anterior. ST-segment resolution ≥70% was found in 52.0% of CsA patients and 49.0% of controls (p = 0.55). Median hs-cTnT on day 4 was 2,160 (Q1 to Q3: 1,087 to 3,274) ng/l in CsA and 2,068 (1,117 to 3,690) ng/l in controls (p = 0.85). The 2 groups did not differ in LV ejection fraction on day 4 and at 6 months. Infarct site did not influence CsA efficacy. There were no acute allergic reactions or nonsignificant excesses of 6-month mortality (5.7% CsA vs. 3.2% controls, p = 0.17) or cardiogenic shock (2.4% CsA vs. 1.5% controls, p = 0.33). Conclusions In the CYCLE (CYCLosporinE A in Reperfused Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, a single intravenous CsA bolus just before primary percutaneous coronary intervention had no effect on ST-segment resolution or hs-cTnT, and did not improve clinical outcomes or LV remodeling up to 6 months. (CYCLosporinE A in Reperfused Acute Myocardial Infarction [CYCLE]; NCT01650662; EudraCT number 2011-002876-18) © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Casella G.,Ospedale Maggiore | Ottani F.,Ospedale Morgagni | Ortolani P.,University of Bologna | Guastaroba P.,Agenzia Sanitaria Regionale Regione Emilia Romagna | And 8 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2011

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate whether results of "off-hours" and "regular-hours" primary angioplasty (primary percutaneous coronary intervention [pPCI]) are comparable in an unselected population of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction treated within a regional network organization. Background: Conflicting results exist on the outcome of off-hours pPCI. Methods: We analyzed in-hospital and 1-year cardiac mortality among 3,072 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with pPCI between January 1, 2004, and June 30, 2006, during regular-hours (weekdays 8:00 am to 8:00 pm) and off-hours (weekdays 8:01 pm to 7:59 am, weekends, and holidays) within the STEMI Network of the Italian Region Emilia-Romagna (28 hospitals: 19 spoke and 9 hub interventional centers). Results: Fifty-three percent of patients were treated off-hours. Baseline findings were comparable, although regular-hours patients were older and had more incidences of multivessel disease. Median pain-to-balloon (195 min, interquartile range [IQR]: 140 to 285 vs. 186 min, IQR: 130 to 280 min; p = 0.03) and door-to-balloon time (88 min, IQR: 60 to 122 vs. 77 min, IQR: 48 to 116 min; p < 0.0001) were longer for off-hours pPCI. However, unadjusted in-hospital (5.8% off-hours vs. 7.2% regular-hours, p = 0.11) and 1-year cardiac mortality (8.4% off-hours vs. 10.3% regular-hours, p = 0.08) were comparable. At multivariate analysis, off-hours pPCI did not predict an adverse outcome either for the overall population (odds ratio [OR]: 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49 to 1.01) or for patients directly admitted to the interventional center (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.52 to 1.20). Conclusions: When pPCI is performed within an efficient STEMI network focused on reperfusion, the clinical effectiveness of either off-hours or regular-hours pPCI is comparable. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Navarese E.P.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Gurbel P.A.,Center for Thrombosis Research | Andreotti F.,Catholic University | Tantry U.,Center for Thrombosis Research | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: The optimal timing of coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs) is a matter of debate. Conflicting results among published studies partly relate to different risk profiles of the studied populations. Purpose: To do the most comprehensive meta-analysis of current evidence on early versus delayed invasive treatment in NSTE-ACS. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and Google Scholar databases; conference proceedings; ClinicalTrials.gov registry; and Current Controlled Trials registry through May 2012. Study Selection: Available randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing early versus delayed intervention in the NSTE-ACS population. Data Extraction: Data were extracted for populations, interventions, outcomes, and risk of bias. All-cause mortality was the prespecified primary end point. The longest follow-up available in each study was chosen. The odds ratio with 95% CI was the effect measure. Data Synthesis: Seven RCTs (5370 patients) and 4 observational studies (77 499 patients) were included. Early intervention was less than 20 hours after hospitalization or randomization for RCTs and 24 hours or less for observational studies. Meta-analysis of the RCTs was inconclusive for a survival benefit associated with the early invasive strategy (odds ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.64 to 1.09]; P = 0.180); a similar result emerged from the observational studies. With early versus late intervention, the odds ratios in the RCTs were 1.15 (CI, 0.65 to 2.01; P = 0.63) and 0.76 (CI, 0.56 to 1.04; P = 0.090) for myocardial infarction and major bleeding during follow-up, respectively. Limitation: Current evidence from RCTs is limited by the small overall sample size, low numbers of events in some trials, and heterogeneity in the timing of intervention and in patient risk profiles. Conclusion: At present, there is insufficient evidence either in favor of or against an early invasive approach in the NSTE-ACS population. A more definitive RCT is warranted to guide clinical practice. Primary Funding Source: None. © 2013 American College of Physicians.


Grassi G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Seravalle G.,Instituto Auxologico Italiano | Brambilla G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Trabattoni D.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino | And 11 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2015

It is still largely unknown whether the neuroadrenergic responses to renal denervation (RD) are involved in its blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects and represent predictors of the BP responses to RD. In 15 treated true resistant hypertensives, we measured before and 15 days, 1, 3, and 6 months after RD clinic, ambulatory and beat-to-beat BP. Measurements included muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (MSNA), spontaneous baroreflex-MSNA sensitivity, and various humoral and metabolic variables. Twelve treated hypertensives served as controls. BP, which was unaffected 15 days after RD, showed a significant decrease during the remaining follow-up period. MSNA and baroreflex did not change at 15-day and 1-month follow-up and showed, respectively, a decrease and a specular increase at 3 and 6 months after RD. No relationship, however, was detected between baseline MSNA and baroreflex, MSNA changes and BP changes. At the 6-month follow-up, the MSNA reduction was similar for magnitude in patients displaying a BP reduction greater or lower the median value. Similarly, the BP reduction detected 6 months after RD was similar in patients displaying a MSNA reduction greater or lower median value. No significant BP and MSNA changes were detected in the control group. Thus, the BP reduction associated with RD seems to precede the MSNA changes and not to display a temporal, qualitative, and quantitative relationship with the MSNA and baroreflex effects. Given the small sample size of the present study further investigations are warranted to confirm the present findings. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Raggi P.,Emory University | Bellasi A.,University of Bologna | Gamboa C.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Ferramosca E.,University of Bologna | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2011

Background and objectives Calcification of the mitral and aortic valves is common in dialysis patients (CKD-5D). However, the prognostic significance of valvular calcification (VC) in CKD is not well established. Design, setting, participants, & measurements 144 adult CKD-5D patients underwent bidimensional echocardiography for qualitative assessment of VC and cardiac computed tomography (CT) for quantification of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and VC. The patients were followed for a median of 5.6 years for mortality from all causes. Results Overall, 38.2% of patients had mitral VC and 44.4% had aortic VC on echocardiography. Patients with VC were older and less likely to be African American; all other characteristics were similar between groups. The mortality rate of patients with calcification of either valve was higher than for patients without VC. After adjustment for age, gender, race, diabetes mellitus, and history of atherosclerotic disease, only mitral VC remained independently associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 2.91). Patients with calcification of both valves had a two-fold increased risk of death during follow-up compared with patients without VC (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.14 to 4.08). A combined CT score of VC and CAC was strongly associated with all-cause mortality during follow-up (HR for highest versus lowest tertile, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.08 to 4.54). Conclusions VC is associated with a significantly increased risk for all-cause mortality in CKD-5D patients. These findings support the use of echocardiography for risk stratification in CKD-5D as recently suggested in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.


Palmerini T.,Unita Operativa di Cardiologia | Benedetto U.,University of Oxford | Biondi-Zoccai G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Della Riva D.,Unita Operativa di Cardiologia | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

Background Previous meta-analyses have investigated the relative safety and efficacy profiles of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS); however, most prior trials in these meta-analyses reported follow-up to only 1 year, and as such, the relative long-term safety and efficacy of these devices are unknown. Many recent studies have now reported extended follow-up data. Objectives This study sought to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of durable polymer-based DES, bioabsorbable polymer-based biolimus-eluting stents (BES), and BMS by means of network meta-analysis. Methods Randomized controlled trials comparing DES to each other or to BMS were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and proceedings of international meetings. Information on study design, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample characteristics, and clinical outcomes was extracted. Results Fifty-one trials that included a total of 52,158 randomized patients with follow-up duration ≥3 years were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 3.8 years, cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (EES) were associated with lower rates of mortality, definite stent thrombosis (ST), and myocardial infarction than BMS, paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and less ST than BES. Phosphorylcholine-based zotarolimus-eluting stents had lower rates of definite ST than SES and lower rates of myocardial infarction than BMS and PES. The late rates of target-vessel revascularization were reduced with all DES compared with BMS, with cobalt-chromium EES, platinum chromium-EES, SES, and BES also having lower target-vessel revascularization rates than PES. Conclusions After a median follow-up of 3.8 years, all DES demonstrated superior efficacy compared with BMS. Among DES, second-generation devices have substantially improved long-term safety and efficacy outcomes compared with first-generation devices. © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation.


Incalcaterra E.,University of Palermo | Accardi G.,University of Palermo | Balistreri C.R.,University of Palermo | Caimi G.,University of Palermo | And 3 more authors.
Current Atherosclerosis Reports | Year: 2013

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic, progressive, multifactorial disease mostly affecting large and medium-sized elastic and muscular arteries. It has formerly been considered a bland lipid storage disease. Currently, multiple independent pathways of evidence suggest this pathological condition is a peculiar form of inflammation, triggered by cholesterol-rich lipoproteins and influenced both by environmental and genetic factors. The Human Genome Project opened up the opportunity to dissect complex human traits and to understand basic pathways of multifactorial diseases such as AS. Population-based association studies have emerged as powerful tools for examining genes with a role in common multifactorial diseases that have a strong environmental component. These association studies often estimate the risk of developing a certain disease in carriers and non-carriers of a particular genetic polymorphism. Dissecting out the influence of pro-inflammatory genes within the complex pathophysiology of AS and its complications will help to provide a more complete risk assessment and complement known classical cardiovascular risk factors. The detection of a risk profile will potentially allow both the early identification of individuals susceptible to disease and the possible discovery of potential targets for drug or lifestyle modification; i.e. it will open the door to personalized medicine. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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