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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Asimakopoulos A.D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cerruto M.A.,University of Verona | Del Popolo G.,University of Florence | La Martina M.,Unit of Urology | And 3 more authors.
Urologia Internationalis | Year: 2012

Objectives: To provide an overview on the efficacy, tolerability, safety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of drugs with a mixed action used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Evidence Acquisition: MEDLINE database and abstract books of the major conferences were searched for relevant publications from 1966 to 2011 and using the key words 'overactive bladder', 'detrusor overactivity', 'oxybutynin', 'propiverine', and 'flavoxate'. Two independent reviewers considered publications for inclusion and extracted relevant data, without performing a meta-analysis. Evidence Synthesis: Old and conflicting data do not support the use of flavoxate, while both propiverine and oxybutynin were found to be more effective than placebo in the treatment of OAB. Propiverine was at least as effective as oxybutynin but with a better tolerability profile even in the pediatric setting. Overall, no serious adverse event for any product was statistically significant compared to placebo. Improvements were seen in HRQoL with treatment by the oxybutynin transdermal delivery system and propiverine extended release. Conclusions: While there is no evidence to suggest the use of flavoxate in the treatment of OAB, both oxybutynin and propiverine appear efficacious and safe. Propiverine shows a better tolerability profile than oxybutynin. Both drugs improve HRQoL of patients affected by OAB. Profiles of each drug and dosage differ and should be considered in making treatment choices. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Cerruto M.A.,University of Verona | Asimakopoulos A.D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Artibani W.,University of Verona | Del Popolo G.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
Urologia Internationalis | Year: 2012

Although overactive bladder (OAB) and detrusor overactivity (DO) are not synonyms, they share therapeutic options and partially underlying physiopathological mechanisms. The aim of this overview is to give insight into new potential targets for the treatment of OAB and DO. A narrative review was done in order to reach this goal. Ageing, pelvic floor disorders, hypersensitivity disorders, morphologic bladder changes, neurological diseases, local inflammations, infections, tumors and bladder outlet obstruction may alter the normal voluntary control of micturition, leading to OAB and DO. The main aim of pharmacotherapy is to restore normal control of micturition, inhibiting the emerging pathological involuntary reflex mechanism. Therapeutic targets can be found at the levels of the urothelium, detrusor muscles, autonomic and afferent pathways, spinal cord and brain. Increased expression and/or sensitivity of urothelial-sensory molecules that lead to afferent sensitization have been documented as a possible pathogenesis of OAB. Targeting afferent pathways and/or bladder smooth muscles by modulating activity of ligand receptors and ion channels could be effective to suppress OAB. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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