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San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy

Ciofetta G.,Unit of Nuclear Medicine
Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2010

Gastroesophageal reflux represents a physiological phenomenon in the first year of life. The reflux associated with clinical complications is defined as "gastroesophageal reflux disease" (GERD), that may be esophageal or extra-esophageal, as is for respiratory problems. Nuclear medicine investigations have given an important contribution to the diagnostic assessment and therapeutical management of GERD in children, by means of the following procedures: scintigraphy of the gastroduodenal transit and reflux detection, scintigraphic quantification of gastric emptying, scintigraphy of the esophageal transit, radioisotopic salivagram, scintigraphy of lung perfusion, ventilation and of mucociliary clearance. All of these investigations are among die less irradiating nuclear medicine procedures, therefore particularly adapted to paediatrics. The main clinical advantages of this body of information include: improvements in the management of many asthmatic children, surgical anti-reflux intervention success-rate increase, prompt regional lung alterations detection for preventing stable tissue damage, and many others.

Carnevale V.,Unit of Internal Medicine | Minonne R.,Unit of Internal Medicine | De Matthaeis A.,Unit of Internal Medicine | Annese M.A.,Unit of Internal Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Endocrine | Year: 2014

Vitamin D (25OHD) and/or parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been associated with common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We investigated such associations in inpatients consecutively admitted to an Internal Medicine Department. In 168 consecutive patients admitted to our department, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured by means of RIA and PTH by means of ICMA, whereas IMT by means of ultrasonography. The main cardiovascular risk factors were also explored. In patients with either diabetes, or hypertension, or both, 25OHD values were not significantly lower than in other patients. No difference was found among the IMT values across tertiles of 25OHD level, as like as in the 25OHD, PTH, PTH/25OHD ratio values of patients either grouped by tertiles of IMT, or categorized according to IMT of <0.9, 0.9–1.5, and >1.5 mm. IMT did not significantly associate with 25OHD, PTH, and PTH/25OHD ratio, whereas it positively associated with age (r = 0.281; p < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.138; p = 0.074), and negatively with eGFR (r = −154; p = 0.046). Multiple regression models showed that IMT was significantly associated to age and BMI, while 25OHD, PTH, or PTH/25OHD ratio did not increase the significance of the models. IMT assessment does not seem to be associated with 25OHD and PTH levels in unselected inpatients. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Treglia G.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Stefanelli A.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | Cason E.,Unit of Nuclear Medicine | Cocciolillo F.,Catholic University of the Sacred Heart | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery | Year: 2011

Background and purpose: This study was designed to review the diagnostic performance of iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple-system atrophy (MSA). Methods: A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through March 2011 regarding MIBG scintigraphy in patients with PD and MSA was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase databases. Only studies in which MIBG scintigraphy was performed for differential diagnosis between PD and MSA were selected. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of MIBG scintigraphy were presented with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The area under the ROC curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of MIBG scintigraphy in differential diagnosis between PD and MSA. Results: Ultimately, we identified 12 studies comprising a total of 1226 patients (593 patients with PD, 117 patients with other Lewy body disease, 129 patients with MSA, and 387 patients with other diseases). The pooled sensitivity of MIBG scintigraphy to detect PD was 89% (95% CI: 86-91%); the pooled specificity of MIBG scintigraphy to discriminate between PD and MSA was 77% (95% CI: 68-84%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.93. Conclusions: MIBG scintigraphy is an accurate test for PD detection and differential diagnosis between PD and MSA; this method shows high sensitivity and adequate specificity in this field. Nevertheless, possible causes of false negative and false positive findings should be considered when interpreting the scintigraphic results. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Treglia G.,Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland | Sadeghi R.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | Del Sole A.,Unit of Nuclear Medicine | Del Sole A.,University of Milan | Giovanella L.,Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2014

Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) is the most used positron emitter radiopharmaceutical worldwide. This glucose analogue allows to study the glucose metabolism which is often increased in many tumors. Nowadays the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using F-18-FDG in different tumors is well known. On the other hand, to date, there is an increasing interest for the use of PET tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology, because they allow to study different metabolic pathways or receptor expression. The aim of this review is to summarize the scientific literature about the diagnostic performance of PET/CT using tracers other than F-18-FDG in oncology through an evidence-based approach. In particular, the results of meta-analyses (representing the highest level of evidence) on the diagnostic performance of PET tracers other than F-18-FDG in different tumors are described. Furthermore, recommendations for the use of different PET tracers in oncology are provided based on existing literature data. © 2014 Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO).

Esmaeilzadeh M.,Karolinska University Hospital | Ciarmiello A.,Unit of Nuclear Medicine | Squitieri F.,Neurogenetics and Rare Disease Center
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Huntington disease (HD) is a severe incurable nervous system disease that generally has an onset age of around 35-50, and is caused by a dominantly transmitted expansion mutation. A genetic test allows persons at risk, i.e., offspring or siblings of affected individuals, to discover their genetic status. Unaffected mutation-positive subjects will manifest HD sometime during life. Despite major advances in research on pathogenic mechanisms, no studies have yet fully validated preventive therapy or biomarkers for use before the symptoms become clinically manifest. Seeking brain and peripheral biomarkers is a requisite to develop a cure for HD. Changes in the brain can be observed in vivo using methods such as structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), detecting volumetric changes, microstructural and connectivity alterations, abnormalities in brain activity in response to specific tasks, and abnormalities in metabolism and receptor distribution. Although all these imaging techniques can detect early markers in asymptomatic HD gene carriers for premanifest screening and pharmacological responses to therapeutic interventions no single modality has yet provided and validated an optimal marker probably because this task requires an integrative multimodal imaging approach. In this article, we review the findings from imaging procedures in the attempt to identify potential brain markers, so-called dry biomarkers, for possible application to further, yet unavailable, neuroprotective preventive therapies for HD manifestations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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