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Roncella S.,ASL | Laurent S.,University of Genoa | Fontana V.,Unit of Clinical Epidemiology | Ferro P.,ASL | And 18 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2016

CTLA-4 function as a negative regulator of T cell-mediated immune response is well established, whereas much less is known about the immunoregulatory role of its soluble isoform (sCTLA-4). No data are available on CTLA-4 expression and prognostic impact in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We investigated, by immunohistochemistry, CTLA-4 expression in tumor tissues and, by ELISA, sCTLA-4 levels in sera and matched pleural effusions from 45 MPM patients. Prognostic effect of CTLA-4 expression on overall survival (OS) was assessed through Cox regression and prognostic significance expressed as death rate ratio (HR). We found that 56.0 % of MPM tissues expressed CTLA-4 with variable intensity and percentage of positive cells estimated by the immunoreactive score. sCTLA-4 levels were significantly higher in sera (S-sCTLA-4) than in pleural effusions (PE-sCTLA-4) (geometric mean ratio = 2.70, P value = 0.020). CTLA-4 expression at the tissue level was higher in the epithelioid histological subtype than in the sarcomatoid, whereas at the serum level, it was higher in the sarcomatoid subtype. A homogeneous favorable prognostic effect was found for CTLA-4 overexpression in tissue, serum and pleural effusion. Interestingly, only the PE-sCTLA-4 was found to be a statistically significant positive prognostic factor (HR = 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.18–0.77, P value = 0.007). Indeed, PE-sCTLA-4 correlated with CTLA-4 expression in tissues, whereas this latter expression showed a weak association with OS. To confirm our findings, further experimental evidences obtained from a larger cohort of MPM patients are required. However, our results would indicate a positive correlation of PE-sCTLA-4 levels and OS in MPM patients. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Poggi A.,Unit of Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis | Zocchi M.R.,Transplants and Infectious Diseases
OncoImmunology | Year: 2013

Stress-related immunity can be activated in the course of lymphoproliferative disorders, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, upon the interaction between killer cell lectinlike receptor subfamily K, member 1 (KLRK1, best known as NKG2D) on effector lymphocytes and NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL), such as MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA), MICB and various UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs), on lymphoma cells. However, NKG2DLs can also bind NKG2D upon shedding, thus affecting the recognition of lymphoma cells by the immune system. The proteolytic cleavage of MICA depends on protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6 (PDIA6, a thiol isomerase best known as ER p5) as well as on the disintegrins and metalloproteinases ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17, which also cleave ULPBs. These enzymes can be targeted in novel therapeutic schemes to avoid the escape of malignant cells from stress-evoked immune responses. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

Poggi A.,Unit of Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis | Zocchi M.R.,Transplants and Infectious Diseases
Frontiers in Bioscience - Landmark | Year: 2014

The role of lymphocytes in eliminating lymphoma cells is based on the interaction between activating receptors on lymphocytes and target surface ligands on lymphoma cells. Stress-related immunity can be triggered both in Hodgkin's (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), through the activation of the NKG2D receptor on CD8+T and gammadelta T lymphocytes, by NKG2D-ligands (NKG2D-L), as the MHC class-I related molecules MIC-A/B and the UL16-binding proteins 1-4 (ULBPs), expressed on lymphoma cells. Furthermore, NKG2D-L can be shed and interact with NKG2D on effector lymphocytes affecting the recognition of lymphoma cells. Proteolytic cleavage of MIC-A is known to depend on the thiol isomerase ERp5 and the disintegrins and metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17, which also cleave ULPBs. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are relevant in regulating effector T lymphocytes-mediated lymphoma surveillance. Indeed, MSC can be seen as targets of potential new therapeutic schemes acting on lymphoma microenvironment, to redirect the stress immune response and avoid escape strategies, by inducing stress molecules, inhibiting sheddase activity, shifting cytokine production to Th1 pattern and blocking Treg differentiation.

Boero S.,Unit of Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis | Morabito A.,Unit of Tumor Epigenetics | Banelli B.,Unit of Tumor Epigenetics | Cardinali B.,Development of Innovative Therapies Unit | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Trastuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) currently used for the treatment of breast cancer (BC) patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumor subtype. Previous data reported the involvement of FcγRIIIA/IIA gene polymorphisms and/or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in the therapeutic efficacy of trastuzumab, although results on these issues are still controversial. This study was aimed to evaluate in vitro the functional relationships among FcγRIIIA/IIA polymorphisms, ADCC intensity and HER-2 expression on tumor target cells and to correlate them with response to trastuzumab. Patients and methods: Twenty-five patients with HER-2 overexpressing BC, receiving trastuzumabin a neoadjuvant (NEO) or metastatic (MTS) setting, were genotyped for the FcγRIIIA 158V>F and FcγRIIA 131H>R polymorphisms by a newly developed pyrosequencing assay and by multiplex Tetra-primer-ARMS PCR, respectively. Trastuzumab-mediated ADCC of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated prior to therapy and measured by 51Chromium release using as targets three human BC cell lines showing different levels of reactivity with trastuzumab. Results: We found that the FcγRIIIA 158F and/or the FcγRIIA 131R variants, commonly reported as unfavorable in BC, may actually behave as ADCC favorable genotypes, in both the NEO (P ranging from 0.009 to 0.039 and from 0.007 to 0.047, respectively) and MTS (P ranging from 0.009 to 0.032 and P=0.034, respectively) patients. The ADCC intensity was affected by different levels of trastuzumab reactivity with BC target cells. In this context, the MCF-7 cell line, showing the lowest reactivity with trastuzumab, resulted the most suitable cell line for evaluating ADCC and response to trastuzumab. Indeed, we found a statistically significant correlation between an increased frequency of patients showing ADCC of MCF-7 and complete response to trastuzumab in the NEO setting (P=0.006). Conclusions: Although this study was performed in a limited number of patients, it would indicate a correlation of FcγR gene polymorphisms to the ADCC extent in combination with the HER-2 expression levels on tumor target cells in BC patients. However, to confirm our findings further experimental evidences obtained from a larger cohort of BC patients are mandatory. © 2015 Boero et al.

Camodeca C.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Nuti E.,University of Pisa | Tepshi L.,University of Pisa | Tepshi L.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is the most common malignant lymphoma in young adults in the western world. This disease is characterized by an overexpression of ADAM-10 with increased release of NKG2D ligands, involved in an impaired immune response against tumor cells. We designed and synthesized two new ADAM-10 selective inhibitors, 2 and 3 based on previously published ADAM-17 selective inhibitor 1. The most promising compound was the thiazolidine derivative 3, with nanomolar activity for ADAM-10, high selectivity over ADAM-17 and MMPs and good efficacy in reducing the shedding of NKG2D ligands (MIC-B and ULBP3) in three different HL cell lines at non-toxic doses. Molecular modeling studies were used to drive the design and X-ray crystallography studies were carried out to explain the selectivity of 3 for ADAM-10 over MMPs. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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