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Bahi-Buisson N.,Service de Neurologie Pe Diatrique | Bahi-Buisson N.,University of Paris Descartes | Bahi-Buisson N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Poirier K.,University of Paris Descartes | And 25 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2010

GPR56 mutations cause an autosomal recessive polymicrogyria syndrome that has distinctive radiological features combining bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, white matter abnormalities and cerebellar hypoplasia. Recent investigations of a GPR56 knockout mouse model suggest that bilateral bifrontoparietal polymicrogyria shares some features of the cobblestone brain malformation and demonstrate that loss of GPR56 leads to a dysregulation of the maintenance of the pial basement membrane integrity in the forebrain and the rostral cerebellum. In light of these findings and other data in the literature, this study aimed to refine the clinical features with the first description of a foetopathological case and to define the range of cobblestone-like features in GPR56 bilateral bifrontoparietal polymicrogyria in a sample of 14 patients. We identified homozygous GPR56 mutations in 14 patients from eight consanguineous families with typical bilateral bifrontoparietal polymicrogyria and in one foetal case, out of 30 patients with bifrontoparietal polymicrogyria referred for molecular screening. The foetal case, which was terminated at 35 weeks of gestation in view of suspicion of Walker Warburg syndrome, showed a cobblestone-like lissencephaly with a succession of normal, polymicrogyric and 'cobblestone-like' cortex with ectopic neuronal overmigration, agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and hypoplastic cerebellar hemispheres with additional neuronal overmigration in the pons and the cerebellar cortex. The 14 patients with GPR56 mutations (median 8.25 years, range 1.5-33 years) were phenotypically homogeneous with a distinctive clinical course characterized by pseudomyopathic behaviour at onset that subsequently evolved into severe mental and motor retardation. Generalized seizures (12/14) occurred later with onset ranging from 2.5 to 10 years with consistent electroencephalogram findings of predominantly anterior bursts of low amplitude α-like activity. Neuroimaging demonstrated a common phenotype with bilateral frontoparietally predominant polymicrogyria (13/13), cerebellar dysplasia with cysts mainly affecting the superior vermis (11/13) and patchy to diffuse myelination abnormalities (13/13). Additionally, the white matter abnormalities showed a peculiar evolution from severe hypomyelination at 4 months to patchy lesions later in childhood. Taken as a whole, these observations collectively demonstrate that GPR56 bilateral bifrontoparietal polymicrogyria combines all the features of a cobblestone-like lissencephaly and also suggest that GRP56-related defects produce a phenotypic continuum ranging from bilateral bifrontoparietal polymicrogyria to cobblestone-like lissencephaly. © 2010 The Author.


Wilmshurst J.M.,Red Cross | Lillis S.,Guy s Hospital | Zhou H.,Institute of Child Health | Pillay K.,Red Cross | And 20 more authors.
Annals of Neurology | Year: 2010

Objective Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by prominence of central nuclei on muscle biopsy. CNM has been associated with mutations in MTM1, DNM2, and BIN1 but many cases remain genetically unresolved. RYR1 encodes the principal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel and has been implicated in various congenital myopathies. We investigated whether RYR1 mutations cause CNM. Methods We sequenced the entire RYR1 coding sequence in 24 patients with a diagnosis of CNM from South Africa (n = 14) and Europe (n = 10) and identified mutations in 17 patients. The most common genotypes featured compound heterozygosity for RYR1 missense mutations and mutations resulting in reduced protein expression, including intronic splice site and frameshift mutations. Results The high incidence in South African patients (n = 12/14) in conjunction with recurrent RYR1 mutations associated with common haplotypes suggested the presence of founder effects. In addition to central nuclei, prominent histopathological findings included (often multiple) internalized nuclei and type 1 fiber predominance and hypotrophy with relative type 2 hypertrophy. Although cores were not typically seen on oxidative stains, electron microscopy revealed subtle abnormalities in most cases. External ophthalmoplegia, proximal weakness, and bulbar involvement were prominent clinical findings. Interpretation Our findings expand the range of RYR1-related phenotypes and suggest RYR1 mutations as a common cause of congenital myopathies with central nuclei. Corresponding to recent observations in X-linked CNM, these findings indicate disturbed assembly and/or malfunction of the excitation-contraction machinery as a key mechanism in CNM and related myopathies. © American Neurological Association.


Mignarri A.,University of Siena | Rubegni A.,Unit of Molecular Medicine | Tessa A.,Unit of Molecular Medicine | Stefanucci S.,Unit of Neurology | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2016

Mutations in DDHD1 cause the SPG28 subtype of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Recent studies suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in SPG28. Here we describe two siblings with SPG28, and report evidence of mitochondrial impairment in skeletal muscle and skin fibroblasts. Patient 1 (Pt1) was a 35-year-old man with spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinence, while his 25-year-old brother (Pt2) had gait spasticity and motor axonal neuropathy. In these patients we identified the novel homozygous c.1429C > T/p.R477∗mutation in DDHD1, using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Histochemical analyses in muscle showed mitochondrial alterations, and multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions were evident. In Pt1, respiratory chain enzyme activities were altered in skeletal muscle, mitochondrial ATP levels reduced, and analysis of skin fibroblasts revealed mitochondrial fragmentation. It seems possible that the novel nonsense mutation identified abolishes DDHD1 protein function thus altering oxidative metabolism. Qualitative alterations of mtDNA could have a pathogenetic significance. We suggest to perform DDHD1 analysis in patients with multiple mtDNA deletions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Bruno C.,Irccs G Gaslini Institute | Cassandrini D.,Unit of Molecular Medicine | Fattori F.,IRCCS Bambino Gesu Hospital | Pedemonte M.,Irccs G Gaslini Institute | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

We report an 11-year-old boy with exercise-related myopathy, and a novel mutation m.5669G>A in the mitochondrial tRNA Asparagine gene (mt-tRNA Asn, MTTN). Muscle biopsy studies showed COX-negative, SDH-positive fibers at histochemistry and biochemical defects of oxidative metabolism. The m.5669G>A mutation was present only in patient's muscle resulting in the first muscle-specific MTTN mutation. Mt-tRNA Asn steady-state levels and in silico predictions supported the pathogenicity of this mutation. A mitochondrial myopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of exercise intolerance in children. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Filosto M.,University of Brescia | Lanzi G.,University of Brescia | Nesti C.,Unit of Molecular Medicine | Vielmi V.,University of Brescia | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports | Year: 2016

Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a mitochondrial disorder usually caused by single or multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and, more rarely, by maternally inherited mtDNA point mutations, most frequently in tRNA genes (MTT). We report on a patient presenting with a progressive eyelid ptosis with bilateral ophthalmoparesis, dysphagia, dysphonia and mild proximal limb weakness associate with a mild movement disorder characterized by abnormal involuntary movements involving head and limbs, imbalance and gait instability. Muscle biopsy demonstrated the presence of ragged red fibers and several cytochrome-C-oxidase negative fibers. Molecular analysis showed the novel m.5613T > C heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrial tRNAAla gene (MTTA) which disrupts a conserved site and fulfills the accepted criteria of pathogenicity. Moreover, a 38 CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion was found on the huntingtin gene, thus configuring a singular CPEO/"reduced penetrance" Huntington disease "double trouble". With this novel MTTA point mutation, we extend the spectrum of provisional pathogenic changes in this gene, which is a very rare site of pathogenic mutation, and confirm that clinical expression of these mutations is hardly ever heterogeneous, including myopathy and CPEO. Mitochondrial involvement is an emerging key determinant in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease and it is well known that mutant huntingtin influences the mitochondrial respiratory complexes II and III. A synergist effect of the HTT and MTTA mutations on respiratory chain function may be hypothesized in our patient and should be regarded as a spur for further studies on the mtDNA/HTT reciprocal interactions. © 2016 The Authors.


Ginanneschi F.,University of Siena | Carluccio M.A.,University of Siena | Mignarri A.,University of Siena | Tessa A.,Unit of Molecular Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Neurological Sciences | Year: 2014

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies on the pathways to the upper limbs have revealed inconsistent results in patients harboring mutations in SPAST/SPG4 gene, responsible for the commonest form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). This paper is addressed to study the corticomotor excitability of the pathways to the upper limbs in SPG4 subjects. We assessed the corticomotor excitability of hand muscles in 12 subjects belonging to 7 unrelated SPG4 families and in 12 control subjects by stimulus-response curve [input-output (I-O) curve]. All the parameters of the recruitment curve (threshold, V50, slope and plateau) did not differ significantly from those of the controls. Presence of upper limb hyper-reflexia did not influence the results of I-O curve. Considering the multiplicity of possible genes/loci accounting for pure HSPs, performing TMS analyses could be helpful in differential diagnosis of pure HSPs in the absence of other clinical or neuroimaging tools. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Mignarri A.,University of Siena | Tessa A.,Unit of Molecular Medicine | Carluccio M.A.,University of Siena | Rufa A.,University of Siena | And 8 more authors.
Neurological Sciences | Year: 2014

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, spastic paraparesis, polyneuropathy, and evidence of superior cerebellar vermis atrophy at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Reports of atypical presentations and additional clinical or MRI findings have been recently published, but psychiatric disturbances have never been associated with ARSACS. We describe four ARSACS patients manifesting severe psychiatric symptoms including psychosis, panic disorder, and depression during the course of the disease. Our case reports further expand the ARSACS phenotype and add clinical data in favor of the hypothesized relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Italia.


PubMed | Unit of Neurology, University of Siena and Unit of Molecular Medicine
Type: | Journal: Journal of the neurological sciences | Year: 2016

Mutations in DDHD1 cause the SPG28 subtype of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Recent studies suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in SPG28. Here we describe two siblings with SPG28, and report evidence of mitochondrial impairment in skeletal muscle and skin fibroblasts. Patient 1 (Pt1) was a 35-year-old man with spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinence, while his 25-year-old brother (Pt2) had gait spasticity and motor axonal neuropathy. In these patients we identified the novel homozygous c.1429C>T/p.R477* mutation in DDHD1, using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Histochemical analyses in muscle showed mitochondrial alterations, and multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions were evident. In Pt1, respiratory chain enzyme activities were altered in skeletal muscle, mitochondrial ATP levels reduced, and analysis of skin fibroblasts revealed mitochondrial fragmentation. It seems possible that the novel nonsense mutation identified abolishes DDHD1 protein function thus altering oxidative metabolism. Qualitative alterations of mtDNA could have a pathogenetic significance. We suggest to perform DDHD1 analysis in patients with multiple mtDNA deletions.

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