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Astolfi A.,University of Bologna | Melchionda F.,University of Bologna | Perotti D.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | Fois M.,University of Bologna | And 9 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Purpose: Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a rare pediatric renal tumor that is frequently difficult to distinguish among other childhood renal tumors due to its histological heterogeneity. This work evaluates genetic abnormalities carried by a series of CCSK samples by whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS), to identify molecular biomarkers that could improve the diagnostic process. Methods: WTS was performed on tumor RNA from 8 patients with CCSK. Bioinformatic analysis, with implementation of a pipeline for detection of intragenic rearrangements, was executed. Sanger sequencing and gene expression were evaluated to validate BCOR internal tandem duplication (ITD). Results: WTS did not identify any shared SNVs, Ins/Del or fusion event. Conversely, analysis of intragenic rearrangements enabled the detection of a breakpoint within BCOR transcript recurrent in all samples. Three different in-frame ITD in exon15 of BCOR, were detected. The presence of the ITD was confirmed on tumor DNA and cDNA, and resulted in overexpression of BCOR. Conclusion: WTS coupled with specific bioinformatic analysis is able to detect rare genetic events, as intragenic rearrangements. ITD in the last exon of BCOR is recurrent in all CCSK samples analyzed, representing a valuable molecular marker to improve diagnosis of this rare childhood renal tumor.

Ottini L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Silvestri V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Rizzolo P.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Falchetti M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 15 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Recently, the number of studies on male breast cancer (MBC) has been increasing. However, as MBC is a rare disease there are difficulties to undertake studies to identify specific MBC subgroups. At present, it is still largely unknown whether BRCA-related breast cancer (BC) in men may display specific characteristics as it is for BRCA-related BC in women. To investigate the clinical-pathologic features of MBC in association with BRCA mutations we established a collaborative Italian Multicenter Study on MBC with the aim to recruit a large series of MBCs. A total of 382 MBCs, including 50 BRCA carriers, were collected from ten Italian Investigation Centres covering the whole country. In MBC patients, BRCA2 mutations were associated with family history of breast/ovarian cancer (p < 0.0001), personal history of other cancers (p = 0.044) and contralateral BC (p = 0.001). BRCA2-associated MBCs presented with high tumor grade (p = 0.001), PR- (p = 0.026) and HER2+ (p = 0.001) status. In a multivariate logistic model BRCA2 mutations showed positive association with personal history of other cancers (OR 11.42, 95 % CI 1.79-73.08) and high tumor grade (OR 4.93, 95 % CI 1.02-23.88) and inverse association with PR+ status (OR 0.19, 95 % CI 0.04-0.92). Based on immunohistochemical (IHC) profile, four molecular subtypes of MBC were identified. Luminal A was the most common subtype (67.7 %), luminal B was observed in 26.5 % of the cases and HER2 positive and triple negative were represented by 2.1 % and 3.7 % of tumors, respectively. Intriguingly, we found that both luminal B and HER2 positive subtypes were associated with high tumor grade (p = 0.003 and 0.006, respectively) and with BRCA2 mutations (p = 0.016 and 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, our findings indicate that BRCA2-related MBCs represent a subgroup of tumors with a peculiar phenotype characterized by aggressive behavior. The identification of a BRCA2-associated phenotype might define a subset of MBC patients eligible for personalized clinical management. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Radice P.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | de Summa S.,National Cancer Center Giovanni Paolo | Caleca L.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | Tommasi S.,National Cancer Center Giovanni Paolo
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

In the last few years, several studies have focused on the interpretation of unclassified variants (UVs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Analysis of UVs through a unique approach is not sufficient to understand their role in the development of tumors. Thus, it is clear that assembling results from different sources (genetic and epidemiological data, histopathological features, and in vitro and in silico analyses) represents a powerful way to classify such variants. Building reliable integrated models for UV classification requires the joining of many working groups to collaborative consortia, allowing data exchange and improvements of methods. This will lead to improvement in the predictivity of gene testing in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and, consequently, to an increase in the number of families that can be correctly classified as linked or unlinked to these genes, allowing more accurate genetic counseling and clinical management. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Vitellaro M.,Colorectal Surgery Unit | Vitellaro M.,New York Medical College | Sala P.,Hereditary Digestive Tract Tumours Unit | Signoroni S.,Hereditary Digestive Tract Tumours Unit | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2014

Background Desmoid tumour (DT) is a main cause of death after prophylactic colectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic laparoscopic colectomy on the risk of developing DT in patients with FAP. Methods The database of a single institution was reviewed. Patients with classical FAP with defined genotype who underwent either open or laparoscopic colectomy between 1947 and 2011 were included in the study. The impact of various demographic and clinical features on the risk of developing DT was assessed. Results A total of 672 patients underwent prophylactic colectomy: 602 by an open and 70 by a laparoscopic approach. With a median (range) follow-up of 132 (0-516) months in the open group and 60 (12-108) months in the laparoscopic group, 98 patients (16·3 per cent) developed DT after an open procedure compared with three (4 per cent) following laparoscopic surgery. The estimated cumulative risk of developing DT at 5 years after surgery was 13·0 per cent in the open group and 4 per cent in the laparoscopic group (P = 0·042). In multivariable analysis, female sex (hazard ratio (HR) 2·18, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·40 to 3·39), adenomatous polyposis coli mutation distal to codon 1400 (HR 3·85, 1·90 to 7·80), proctocolectomy (HR 1·67, 1·06 to 2·61), open colectomy (HR 6·84, 1·96 to 23·98) and year of surgery (HR 1·04, 1·01 to 1·07) were independent risk factors for the diagnosis of DT after prophylactic surgery. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery decreased the risk of DT after prophylactic colectomy in patients with FAP. Laparoscopic colectomy was favourable © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Manoukian S.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Peissel B.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Frigerio S.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors | Lecis D.,Unit of Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Cycle Control | And 7 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

CHEK2 gene mutations occur in a subset of patients with familial breast cancer, acting as moderate/low penetrance cancer susceptibility alleles. Although CHEK2 is no longer recognized as a major determinant of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a hereditary condition predisposing to cancer at multiple sites, it cannot be ruled out that mutations of this gene play a role in malignancies arising in peculiar multi-cancer families. To assess the contribution of CHEK2 to the breast cancer/sarcoma phenotype, we screened for germ-line sequence variations of the gene among 12 probands from hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families with one case of sarcoma that tested wild-type for mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 genes. Two cases harbored previously unreported mutations in CHEK2, the c.507delT and c.38A>G, leading to protein truncation (p. Phe169LeufsX2) and amino acid substitution (p. His13Arg), respectively. These mutations were not considered common polymorphic variants, as they were undetected in 230 healthy controls of the same ethnic origin. While the c.38A>G encodes a mutant protein that behaves in biochemical assays as the wild-type form, the c.507delT is a loss-of-function mutation. The identification of two previously unreported CHEK2 variants, including a truncating mutation leading to constitutional haploinsufficiency, in individuals belonging to families selected for breast cancer/sarcoma phenotype, supports the hypothesis that the CHEK2 gene may act as a factor contributing to individual tumor development in peculiar familial backgrounds. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011.

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