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Castori M.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Tadini G.,Pediatric Dermatology Unit | Tadini G.,University of Milan
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia | Year: 2016

Genetic mosaicism is thought to be a common phenomenon in inherited skin disorders. It is the leading molecular mechanism explaining cutaneous hamartomas and nevoid disorders, skin manifestations of most X-linked genodermatoses and specific forms of clinical variability and topographic distribution in autosomal skin disorders. The developmental (in utero) origin and timing dependence are two major attributes for the current definition of cutaneous mosaicism. Chromosomal mosaicism, lyonization in X-linked genodermatoses, and various types of mosaicism (i.e. type 1, type 2 and revertant mosaicism) in autosomal skin disorders are mechanisms well defined at the molecular level. All these concepts have been fully included in the current medical terminology in dermatology and genetics. Mitotic crossing-over, paradominant inheritance, monoallelic expression of autosomal traits and mosaicism in acquired skin disorders remain without a formal molecular proof and still represent sources of debate in the scientific community. This review summarizes current concepts, discoveries and controversies in the field of cutaneous mosaicism for practitioners and clinical researchers to enhance their understanding of such a underestimated clinical phenomenon and its biological basis. © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA.

Ciccacci C.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Di Fusco D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Cacciotti L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Morganti R.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 6 more authors.
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2013

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex disease resulting from the contribution of both environmental and genetic factors. Recently, the list of genes implicated in the susceptibility to T2DM has substantially grown, also as a consequence of the great development of the genome-wide association studies in the last decade. Common polymorphisms in TCF7L2 gene have shown to have a strong effect with respect to many other involved genes. The aims of our study were to confirm the role of TCF7L2 in the susceptibility to T2DM in the Italian population and to investigate whether TCF7L2 genotypes also contribute to the clinical phenotypes variability and to diabetic complications development. Three TCF7L2 polymorphisms (rs7903146, rs7901695 and rs12255372) have been analyzed by allelic discrimination assays in a cohort of 154 Italian patients with T2DM and 171 healthy controls. A case-control association study and a genotype-phenotype correlation study have been carried out. Consistent with previous studies, all three SNPs showed a strong association with susceptibility to T2DM, both at genotypic (P = 0.003, P = 0.004 and P = 0.012) and at allelic level (P = 0.0004, P = 0.0004 and P = 0.003). Moreover, we observed associations between TCF7L2 variants and the following diabetic complications: diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular disease and coronary artery disease. We also found a strong correlation between the rs7903146 and the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (P = 0.02 with a high OR = 8.28). In conclusion, our study, in addition to confirming the involvement of TCF7L2 gene in the T2DM susceptibility, has shown that TCF7L2 genetic variability also contributes to the development of diabetic complications such as retinopathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Corbetta S.,University of Milan | Vaira V.,University of Milan | Guarnieri V.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Scillitani A.,Unit of Endocrinology | And 8 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2010

Parathyroid carcinoma (PaC) is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Though the loss of the oncosuppressor CDC73/HRPT2 gene product, parafibromin, has been involved in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and in a consistent set of sporadic PaCs, parathyroid carcinogenesis remains obscure. MicroRNAs are a new class of small, non-coding RNAs implicated in development of cancer, since their deregulation can induce aberrant expression of several target genes. The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in parathyroid cancers compared with normal tissues. We performed a TaqMan low-density array profiling of four parathyroid cancers harboring CDC73 inactivating mutations and negative for parafibromin immunostaining. Their microRNA profiling was compared with that of two normal parathyroid biopsies. Out of 362 human microRNAs assayed, 279 (77%) were successfully amplified. Fourteen and three microRNAs were significantly down- and over-expressed in parathyroid cancers respectively. Of these, miR-296 and miR-139 were down-regulated, and miR-503 and miR-222 were over-expressed with a null false discovery rate. Carcinomas could be discriminated from parathyroid adenomas by a computed score based on the expression levels of miR-296, miR-222, and miR-503 as miR-139 was similarly down-regulated in both cancers and adenomas. Finally, miR-296 and miR-222 levels negatively correlated with mRNA levels of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate and p27/kip1 levels respectively. These results suggest the existence of an altered microRNA expression pattern in PaCs together with a potential role of miR-296 as novel oncosuppressor gene in these neoplasia. © 2010 Society for Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.

Sun Y.,Leiden University | Almomani R.,Leiden University | Aten E.,Leiden University | Celli J.,Leiden University | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Terminal osseous dysplasia (TOD) is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia of the limbs, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibroma with onset in female infancy. After performing X-exome capture and sequencing, we identified a mutation at the last nucleotide of exon 31 of the FLNA gene as the most likely cause of the disease. The variant c.5217G>A was found in six unrelated cases (three families and three sporadic cases) and was not found in 400 control X chromosomes, pilot data from the 1000 Genomes Project, or the FLNA gene variant database. In the families, the variant segregated with the disease, and it was transmitted four times from a mildly affected mother to a more seriously affected daughter. We show that, because of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation, the mutant allele was not expressed in patient fibroblasts. RNA expression of the mutant allele was detected only in cultured fibroma cells obtained from 15-year-old surgically removed material. The variant activates a cryptic splice site, removing the last 48 nucleotides from exon 31. At the protein level, this results in a loss of 16 amino acids (p.Val1724-Thr1739del), predicted to remove a sequence at the surface of filamin repeat 15. Our data show that TOD is caused by this single recurrent mutation in the FLNA gene. © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

Romeo G.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Bonora E.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Tallini G.,University of Bologna
Journal of Oncology | Year: 2010

Familial thyroid cancer has become a well-recognized entity in patients with thyroid cancer originating from follicular cells, that is, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis of familial thyroid cancer provides an opportunity for early detection and possible prevention in family members. Understanding the syndromes associated with familial thyroid cancer allows clinicians to evaluate and treat patients for coexisting pathologic conditions. About five percents of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma have a familial disease. Patients with familial non-medullalry thyroid cancer have more aggressive tumors with increased rates of extrathyroid extension, lymph node metastases, and frequently show the phenomenon of anticipation (earlier age at disease onset and increased severity in successive generations). So far, four predisposition loci have been identified in relatively rare extended pedigrees, and association studies have identified multiple predisposing variants for differentiated thyroid cancer. This suggests that there is a high degree of genetic heterogeneity and that the development of this type of tumor is a multifactorial and complex process in which predisposing genetic variants interact with a number of incompletely understood environmental risk factors. Thus, the search for the causative variants is still open and will surely benefit from the new technological approaches that have been developed in recent years. © 2010 Elena Bonora et al.

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