Bisceglia M.,IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital |
D'Alessandro V.,Unit of Internal Medicine |
Simeone A.,IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital |
Ben-Dor D.,Barzilai Medical Center |
And 2 more authors.
Advances in Anatomic Pathology | Year: 2010
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a systemic, progressive, and fatal condition affecting almost exclusively women in their reproductive years. LAM most often occurs as a sporadic disease, but also occurs in women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) (syndromic LAM). There are no pathologic differences between sporadic and syndromic LAM. Sporadic LAM is a rare disease with prevalence of approximately 1 to 2 cases per million women in the United States and among populations of white descent, and is even rarer among Asian and African individuals. Syndromic LAM affects 4% to 5% of women with TSC. Sporadic LAM is often found also in association with renal angiomyolipoma, the most common sign of TSC, but LAM associated with angiomyolipoma does not define TSC. Although LAM is not diagnostic for TSC either in isolation or in association with angiomyolipoma, still it is considered by some researchers as an incomplete expression (forme fruste) of TSC. LAM may involve the lungs and the axial lymphatics and lymph nodes of the thorax and retroperitoneum. In sporadic LAM, thoracic, intraabdominal, and cervical lymph nodes can be involved with or without lung involvement. The diagnosis of LAM is often delayed. A case of LAM in a young lady, which was complicated with pleural and peritoneal chylous effusions, is presented. The diagnosis was first made on a retroperitoneal lymph node biopsy. The patient had a prolonged prior history of respiratory problems owing to lung involvement, and eventually died 2 years after diagnosis. Focus on the clinicopathologic diagnosis of TSC is also made. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
PubMed | AOU Citta della Salute e della Science Molinette, Diabetes Center, Ligurian Health Agency, The Second University of Naples and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open diabetes research & care | Year: 2015
In recent years increasing interest in the issue of treatment personalization for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has emerged. This international web-based survey aimed to evaluate opinions of physicians about tailored therapeutic algorithms developed by the Italian Association of Diabetologists (AMD) and available online, and to get suggestions for future developments. Another aim of this initiative was to assess whether the online advertising and the survey would have increased the global visibility of the AMD algorithms.The web-based survey, which comprised five questions, has been available from the homepage of the web-version of the journal Diabetes Care throughout the month of December 2013, and on the AMD website between December 2013 and September 2014. Participation was totally free and responders were anonymous.Overall, 452 physicians (M=58.4%) participated in the survey. Diabetologists accounted for 76.8% of responders. The results of the survey show wide agreement (>90%) by participants on the utility of the algorithms proposed, even if they do not cover all possible needs of patients with T2DM for a personalized therapeutic approach. In the online survey period and in the months after its conclusion, a relevant and durable increase in the number of unique users who visited the websites was registered, compared to the period preceding the survey.Patients with T2DM are heterogeneous, and there is interest toward accessible and easy to use personalized therapeutic algorithms. Responders opinions probably reflect the peculiar organization of diabetes care in each country.
Gelardi M.,University of Bari |
Carbonara G.,San Giacomo Hospital |
Maffezzoni E.,Instituto Figlie Of S Camillo |
Marvisi M.,Unit of Internal Medicine |
And 2 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2012
Objectives: To analyze nasal inflammation in a group of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by means of nasal cytology and to describe the changes induced by continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) treatment. Subjects and methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients affected by OSAS (mean age 46.9. years) and 13 control subjects (mean age 49.1. years) were enrolled. Detailed clinical, laboratory, and polysomnographic studies were obtained in all participants and, in particular, nasal cytology was performed; inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes), bacteria, and spores were counted. A subgroup of 19 OSAS patients underwent regular nasal CPAP for eight weeks while the remaining 13 were noncompliant. Nasal cytology was repeated after eight weeks in all patients and controls. Results: All patients with OSAS were affected by some form of rhinopathy, mostly subclinical, which was not found to influence compliance to CPAP. Regular CPAP treatment induced a significant reduction of cell infiltration (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and muciparous cells), which was not seen in nontreated patients. Conclusion: Nasal inflammation/infection is a very frequent finding in OSAS and can be reverted by the regular use of CPAP. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Biomedical Research Institute August Pi Sunyer and Center for Biomedical Research in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders, Diabetes Unit, AMD Inc, University of Bologna and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of diabetes research | Year: 2016
We studied the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its clinical correlates in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Clinical data of 94,577 T2DM patients were retrieved from 160 diabetes clinics in Italy in a standardized format and centrally analyzed anonymously. After exclusion of 5967 cases (high or uncertain alcohol intake), in 38,880 the Fatty Liver Index (FLI) was used as a proxy for the diagnosis of NAFLD. Factors associated with FLI assessed NAFLD (FLI-NAFLD) were evaluated through multivariate analysis.FLI-NAFLD was present in 59.6% of patients. Compared to non-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD was associated with impairment in renal function, higher albumin excretion, HbA1c and blood pressure, lower HDL cholesterol, and poorer quality of care. ALT was within normal limits in 73.6% of FLI-NAFLD patients (45.6% if the updated reference values were used). The prevalence of FLI-NAFLD did not differ if the whole sample (94,577 cases) was examined, irrespective of alcohol intake.FLI-NAFLD was present in the majority of T2DM patients of our sample and metabolic derangement, not alcohol consumption, was mainly associated with the disease. FLI-NAFLD patients have a worse metabolic profile. ALT levels are not predictive of NAFLD.
PubMed | Center for Outcomes Research and Clinical Epidemiology, Metabolism and Diabetes Unit ASL TO5, Messina University, Unit of Internal Medicine and MSD
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta diabetologica | Year: 2016
Type 2 diabetes is associated with progressive deterioration of beta cell function and loss of glycemic control, with increased morbidity and mortality from microvascular and macrovascular complications. Factors predictive of beta cell decline are needed.We have conducted a prospective evaluation of baseline predictors of beta cell dysfunction and insulin initiation in a cohort of outpatients with type 2 diabetes receiving stable treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents or dietary intervention, over a 4-year follow-up period.Of 507 patients enrolled, 56 (10.8%) experienced the study endpoint of initiation of insulin therapy. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of initiating insulin therapy during follow-up increased with longer diabetes duration and with higher baseline values for hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, proinsulin, interleukin-6, Homeostatic Model Assessment-IR and lower values for Homeostatic Model Assessment-B. The likelihood of initiating insulin therapy increased by 46% for each 1% increase (10.9mmol/mol) in baseline hemoglobin A1c and by 6% for each unit increase (1ng/l) in baseline IL-6 level. The risk was fourfold higher in the lowest versus highest Homeostatic Model Assessment-B quartile. Treatment with metformin plus a secretagogue increased the risk by fourfold.Our results show that commonly measured parameters may predict treatment failure in type 2 diabetes and suggest that early treatment with metformin plus secretagogues may foretell this failure.
Betterle C.,University of Padua |
Garelli S.,Unit of Internal Medicine |
Presotto F.,Unit of Internal Medicine |
Furmaniak J.,RSR Limited
Frontiers of Hormone Research | Year: 2016
Recent progress in the immunopathology field has greatly improved our understanding of the natural history of autoimmune diseases, particularly of Addison's disease. Addison's disease is known to be a chronic illness characterized by adrenocortical gland insufficiency that develops following a long and mainly asymptomatic period, characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies directed to adrenal cortex antigens. In this chapter we describe the groups of subjects at risk of developing Addison's disease, together with the diagnostic tests considered the most appropriate for evaluating adrenal function: determination of basal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and cortisol levels, and cortisol levels after intravenous stimulation with ACTH (ACTH test). The employment of specific clinical, immunological and functional criteria in the subjects with autoantibodies to the adrenal cortex allows identifying those at risk of developing overt disease. The independent risk factors for the progression to adrenal failure have also been identified and they contribute to different risks of developing clinical Addison's disease. Based on the risk level, the subjects should be monitored over time to observe early signs of adrenal dysfunction, and start substitutive treatment as soon as possible. For patients presenting with high risk, prevention strategies and trials might be available. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Eller-Vainicher C.,University of Milan |
Morelli V.,University of Milan |
Salcuni A.S.,University of Milan |
Torlontano M.,Unit of Endocrinology |
And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2010
Objective: Few data are available regarding the need of steroid substitutive therapy after unilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma (AI). It is unknown whether, before surgery, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis secretion parameters can predict post-surgical hypocortisolism. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate whether, in AI patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy, post-surgical hypocortisolism could be predicted by the parameters of HPA axis function. Design: Prospective, multicenter. Methods: A total of 60 patients underwent surgical removal of AI (surgical indication: 29 subclinical hypercortisolism (SH); 31 AI dimension). Before surgery, SH was diagnosed in patients presenting at least three criteria out of urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels > 60 μg/24 h, cortisol after 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg-DST) > 3.0 μg/dl, ACTH levels < 10 pg/ml, midnight serum cortisol (MSC) > 5.4 μg/dl. Two months after surgery, HPA axis function was assessed by low dose ACTH stimulation test or insulin tolerance test when needed: 39 patients were affected (Group B) and 21 were not affected (Group A) with hypocortisolism. The accuracy in predicting hypocortisolism of pre-surgical HPA axis parameters or their combinations was evaluated. Results: The presence of > 2 alterations among 1 mg-DST > 5.0 μg/dl, ACTH < 10 pg/ml, elevated UFC and MSC has the highest odds ratio (OR) for predicting post-surgical hypocortisolism (OR 10.45, 95% confidence interval, CI 2.54-42.95, P=0.001). Post-surgical hypocortisolism was predicted with 100% probability by elevated UFC plus MSC levels, but not ruled out even in the presence of the normality of all HPA axis parameters. Conclusion: Post-surgical hypocortisolism cannot be pre-surgically ruled out. A steroid substitutive therapy is indicated after unilateral adrenalectomy for SH or size of the adenoma. © 2010 European Society of Endocrinology.
Schillaci G.,Unit of Internal Medicine |
Sarchielli P.,Unit of Neurology |
Corbelli I.,Unit of Neurology |
Corbelli I.,University of Perugia |
And 6 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2010
Background: Migraine has been associated with an increased risk for ischemic stroke and other cardiovascular (CV) events, including angina, myocardial infarction, and CV death, but the mechanisms that link migraine to CV disease remain uncertain. We hypothesized that aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness and an independent predictor of stroke and CV disease, may be increased in young migraineurs with no overt CV disease or major CV risk factors. Methods: We studied 60 subjects with migraine (age 33 ± 8 years, 85% women, blood pressure 119/74 ± 11/9 mm Hg) and 60 age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched healthy control subjects. In all participants, carotid-femoral PWV and aortic augmentation index were determined by applanation tonometry. Cases and controls were free from overt CV disease, diabetes, and major CV risk factors. Results: Subjects with migraine had a higher aortic PWV (7.6 ± 1.2 vs 6.4 ± 1.1 m×s, p < 0.001) and aortic augmentation (heart rate-adjusted augmentation index, 0.17 ± 0.13 vs 0.08 ± 0.15, p < 0.001) than matched control subjects. Migraine patients with aura (n = 17) had higher aortic PWV than those without aura (n = 43; 8.2 ± 1.2 vs 7.4 ± 1.1 m×s, p = 0.027). Age, mean arterial pressure as a measure of distending pressure, and migraine (all p < 0.05) independently predicted aortic PWV when a consistent number of CV risk factors was simultaneously controlled for. Conclusions: Migraine is independently associated with increased aortic stiffness and enhanced pressure wave reflection. This finding, obtained in young subjects without major CV risk factors, may represent one possible mechanism underlying the increased CV risk in migraine patients. © 2010 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.
Romagnoli E.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Cipriani C.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Nofroni I.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Castro C.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
And 7 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2013
Background: Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) generally show reduced bone mineral density (BMD) at cortical sites with relatively preserved trabecular bone. However, the increased fracture risk at all skeletal sites suggests that areal BMD probably is not effective in capturing all the determinants of bone strength. "Trabecular Bone Score" (TBS) has been recently proposed as an indirect measure of bone micro-architecture. Our study was aimed to investigate TBS in patients with PHPT. Methods: Seventy-three Caucasian postmenopausal women with PHPT and 74 age-matched healthy women (C) were studied. In all participants BMD at lumbar spine (LS) and at femoral sites (Neck-FN and total hip-TH) was measured by DXA and, in 67 patients and 34 C, also at the distal 1/3 of the radius (R). TBS was measured in the region of LS-BMD. Spine X ray was assessed in all patients. Results: Mean TBS values were significantly reduced in PHPT (1.19 ± 0.10) compared to C (1.24 ± 0.09, p. < 0.01). Patients and controls did not differ for age, years since menopause (YSM), BMI, 25(OH)D serum levels, creatinine clearance, LS-BMD and FN-BMD. On the contrary, mean BMD values at both TH and R were significantly lower in PHPT patients compared to controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In PHPT with vertebral fractures (VF. +, n = 29) TBS was significantly lower than in those without fracture (VF. -, n = 44)(1.14 ± 0.10 vs. 1.22 ± 0.10, respectively; p < 0.01), whose TBS values did not differ from C. Mean TBS values in patients with (n = 18) and without (n = 55) non-vertebral fractures did not significantly differ (1.16 ± 0.09 vs. 1.20 ± 0.11). The presence of vertebral fractures was independently associated with the reduction of TBS (OR = 0.003, 95% CI = 0-0.534, p = 0.028) and with YSM (OR = 1.076, 95% CI = 1.017-1.139, p = 0.011), but not with age, the reduction of LS-BMD and the increase of BMI. The combination of YSM > 10. years plus TBS < 1.2 was associated with a significant risk of VF (OR = 11.73, 95% CI 2.43-66.55, p < 0.001). A TBS value < 1.2 showed a better performance in individuating VF (sensibility 79.3%, specificity 61.4%, positive predictive value 57.5%, and negative predictive value 81.8%) in respect to YSM > 10. years. Conclusions: TBS seem. s to indirectly reflect an alteration of bone micro-architecture in postmenopausal women with PHPT. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | The Second University of Naples, Unit of Internal Medicine and CNR Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology Alberto Monroy
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Angiology | Year: 2016
Shifting the context from the emergency department to the department of medicine, we compared different scores to diagnose deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with several comorbidities, hospitalized in a department of internal medicine. We prospectively recruited 178 consecutive hospitalized patients in whom clinical suspicion of DVT was assessed by Wells modified score for DVT, Hamilton, Kahn, and St Andr Hospital scores. Deep vein thrombosis was confirmed in 85 (48%) patients by both echocolor Doppler and angiocomputed tomography scan. The use of risk scores based on symptoms and clinical signs was weakly useful (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.69, positive predictive value: 59%, and negative predictive value: 74%). Patients with DVT had significantly (P < .0001) lower serum albumin and protein S levels compared to those without DVT. Moreover, serum protein S (AUC: 0.82) and albumin in percentage (AUC: 0.80) showed a better accuracy than clinical scores (P < .001) in assessing the diagnosis of DVT. Therefore, serum albumin and protein S improved the accuracy of clinical scores for the diagnosis of incident DVT in patients hospitalized in a department of medicine.