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Baffico A.M.,Science Laboratorio Of Genetica | Grasso M.,Science Laboratorio Of Genetica | Melis M.A.,University of Cagliari | Pelo E.,SOD Diagnostica | And 7 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Since 2001 the Istituto Superiore di Sanità established a quality assurance programme for molecular genetic testing that covers four pathologies: Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Beta Thalassemia (BT), Fragile X Syndrome (FX), and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC). Since 2009 this activity is an institutional activity and participation is open to both public and private laboratories. Seven rounds have been performed until now and the eighth is in progress. Laboratories receive 4 DNA samples with mock clinical indications. They analyze the samples using their routine procedures. A panel of assessors review the raw data and the reports; all data are managed through a web utility. In 2010 the number of participants was 43, 17, 15, 5 for CF, BT, FX, APC schemes respectively. Genotyping results were correct in 96%, 98.5%, 100%, and 100% of CF, BT, FX, and APC samples, respectively. Interpretation was correct in 74%, 91%, 88%, and 60% of CF, BT, FX, and APC reports, respectively; however in most of them it was not complete but a referral to genetic counseling was given. Reports were satisfactory in more than 60% of samples in all schemes. This work presents the 2010 results in detail comparing our data with those from other European schemes. © 2013 F. Censi et al.


Colombo M.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | de Vecchi G.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | Caleca L.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | Foglia C.,Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Several unclassified variants (UVs) have been identified in splicing regions of disease-associated genes and their characterization as pathogenic mutations or benign polymorphisms is crucial for the understanding of their role in disease development. In this study, 24 UVs located at BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice sites were characterized by transcripts analysis. These results were used to evaluate the ability of nine bioinformatics programs in predicting genetic variants causing aberrant splicing (spliceogenic variants) and the nature of aberrant transcripts. Eleven variants in BRCA1 and 8 in BRCA2, including 8 not previously characterized at transcript level, were ascertained to affect mRNA splicing. Of these, 16 led to the synthesis of aberrant transcripts containing premature termination codons (PTCs), 2 to the up-regulation of naturally occurring alternative transcripts containing PTCs, and one to an in-frame deletion within the region coding for the DNA binding domain of BRCA2, causing the loss of the ability to bind the partner protein DSS1 and ssDNA. For each computational program, we evaluated the rate of non-informative analyses, i.e. those that did not recognize the natural splice sites in the wild-type sequence, and the rate of false positive predictions, i.e., variants incorrectly classified as spliceogenic, as a measure of their specificity, under conditions setting sensitivity of predictions to 100%. The programs that performed better were Human Splicing Finder and Automated Splice Site Analyses, both exhibiting 100% informativeness and specificity. For 10 mutations the activation of cryptic splice sites was observed, but we were unable to derive simple criteria to select, among the different cryptic sites predicted by the bioinformatics analyses, those actually used. Consistent with previous reports, our study provides evidences that in silico tools can be used for selecting splice site variants for in vitro analyses. However, the latter remain mandatory for the characterization of the nature of aberrant transcripts. © 2013 Colombo et al.


Varesco L.,Unit of Hereditary Cancer | Viassolo V.,Unit of Hereditary Cancer | Viel A.,Cancer Regional Center | Gismondi V.,Unit of Hereditary Cancer | And 18 more authors.
Breast | Year: 2013

Purpose: To evaluate in current practice the performance of BOADICEA and BRCAPRO risk models and empirical criteria based on cancer family history for the selection of individuals for BRCA genetic testing. Patients and methods: The probability of BRCA mutation according to the three tools was retrospectively estimated in 918 index cases consecutively undergone BRCA testing at 15 Italian cancer genetics clinics between 2006 and 2008. Results: 179 of 918 cases (19.5%) carried BRCA mutations. With the strict use of the criteria based on cancer family history 173 BRCA (21.9%) mutations would have been detected in 789 individuals. At the commonly used 10% threshold of BRCA mutation carrier probability, the genetic models showed a similar performance [PPV (38% and 37%), sensitivity (76% and 77%) and specificity (70% and 69%)]. Their strict use would have avoided around 60% of the tests but would have missed approximately 1 every 4 carriers. Conclusion: Our data highlight the complexity of BRCA testing referral in routine practice and question the strict use of genetic models for BRCA risk assessment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ricci M.T.,Unit of Hereditary Cancer | Pennese L.,Laboratory of Human Genetics | Gismondi V.,Unit of Hereditary Cancer | Perfumo C.,Unit of Hereditary Cancer | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

The identification of women with a high probability of being carriers of pathogenic BRCA mutation is not straightforward and a major improvement would be the availability of markers of mutations that could be directly evaluated in individuals asking for genetic testing. The FMR1 gene testing was recently proposed as a candidate prescreening tool because an association between BRCA pathogenic mutations and FMR1 genotypes with 'low alleles' (CGG repeat number <26) was observed. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the distribution of FMR1 alleles and genotypes between BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers in a cohort of 147 Italian women, free of cancer or affected by breast and/or ovarian cancer, who were tested for the presence of BRCA mutation in a clinical setting. The distribution of FMR1 CGG repeat numbers in the two groups was similar (lower allele median/mean were 30/27.4 and 30/27.9, respectively; Mann-Whitney test P=0.997) and no difference in the FMR1 genotype distribution was present (χ 2 =0.503, d.f.=2, P=0.78). This result is in contrast with literature data and suggests that FMR1 genetic testing is not a candidate BRCA prescreening tool. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Bolognesi C.,Unit of Environmental Carcinogenesis | Bruzzi P.,Unit of Clinical Epidemiology | Gismondi V.,Unit of Hereditary Cancer | Volpi S.,Unit of Environmental Carcinogenesis | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The micronucleus test is a well-established DNA damage assay in human monitoring. The test was proposed as a promising marker of cancer risk/ susceptibility mainly on the basis of studies on breast cancer. Our recent metaanalysis showed that the association between micronuclei frequency, either at baseline or after irradiation, and breast cancer risk or susceptibility, has been evaluated in few studies of small size, with inconsistent results. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of micronucleus assay in evaluating individual breast cancer susceptibility. Two-hundred and twenty untreated breast cancer patients and 295 female controls were enrolled in the study. All women were characterized for cancer family history and 155 subjects were evaluated for the presence of BRCA mutations. Micronuclei frequency was evaluated at baseline and after irradiation with 1-Gy gamma rays from a 137Cs source. The results show a non significant increase of frequency of micronucleated binucleated lymphocytes in cancer patients compared with the controls at baseline (Mean (S.E.): 16.8 (0.7) vs 15.7 (0.5), but not after irradiation (Mean (S.E.): 145.8 (3.0) vs 154.0 (2.6)). Neither a family history of breast cancer nor the presence of a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 genes were associated with an increased micronuclei frequency. Our results do not support a significant role of micronucleus frequency as a biomarker of breast cancer risk/susceptibility. © 2014 Bolognesi et al.

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