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Nobili V.,Unit of Hepato Metabolic Diseases | Vajro P.,University of Salerno | Dezsofi A.,Semmelweis University | Fischler B.,Karolinska University Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Morbid obesity is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The present best treatment for NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is weight reduction through lifestyle modification. Because of frustrating inefficiency of such a therapeutic approach, bariatric surgery is increasingly performed in adolescents as an alternative option for weight reduction. Standards of care and consensus for indications are, however, scarce. We explore the indications and limitations of bariatric surgery in children with severe obesity with and without NASH and aim to provide guidance for the exceptional indications for adolescents with extreme obesity with major comorbidity that may benefit from these controversial interventions. Present evidence suggests that bariatric surgery can decrease the grade of steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in NASH. Uncomplicated NAFLD is not an indication for bariatric surgery. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is considered a safe and effective option for adolescents with extreme obesity, as long as an appropriate long-term follow-up is provided. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in adolescents and therefore should be considered investigational. Finally, sleeve gastrectomy and other types of weight loss surgery that have grown increasingly common in adults, still need to be considered investigational. Temporary devices may be increasingly being used in pediatrics; however, future studies, including a long-term risk analysis of patients who undergo surgery, are much needed to clarify the exact indications for bariatric surgery in adolescents. © Copyright 2015 by ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.

Nobili V.,Unit of Hepato Metabolic Diseases | Liccardo D.,Unit of Hepato Metabolic Diseases | Bedogni G.,Clinical Epidemiology Unit | Salvatori G.,Neonatal Intensive Care Unit | And 3 more authors.
Genes and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Evidence relating dietary patterns to obesity and related disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is limited in pediatric age. Aim of this study was to analyze the association between dietary patterns, obesity and development of severe steatosis and the metabolic syndrome in a series of children and adolescents referred for suspected NAFLD, and the interaction with the rs738409 I148M PNPLA3 polymorphism. Two hundred patients (112 females) had completed a food frequency and demographic questionnaire. Nearly 58% were obese, and 32% were overweight. Mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver was present in 60 (30%), 87 (44%), and 51 (26%) participants, respectively. A great proportion of overweight/ obese children and adolescents reported a correct dietary pattern. At multivariate ordinal regression analysis considering demographic, anthropometric, genetic, and behavioral determinants, the major determinant of steatosis severity was PNPLA3 I148M genotype (p < 0.0001), followed by older age (p = 0.017), higher waist circumference (p = 0.016), and less time spent practising physical exercise (p = 0.034). Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between PNPLA3 I148M and intake of sweetened beverages (p = 0.033) and of vegetables (p = 0.038). In conclusion, although dietary pattern was reportedly correct in at-risk overweight adolescents with NAFLD, we report a novel interaction between PNPLA3 I148M and dietary components with the severity of steatosis. © Springer-Verlag 2014.

Schiaffini R.,Unit of Endocrinology and Diabetes | Liccardo D.,Unit of Hepato Metabolic Diseases | Alisi A.,Unit of Hepato Metabolic Diseases | Benevento D.,Unit of Endocrinology and Diabetes | And 5 more authors.
Hormone Research in Paediatrics | Year: 2016

Background: Glucose derangement has been reported to increase oxidative stress, one of the most important factors underlying the progression of hepatic fibrosis in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To date, careful evaluation of the glucose profile in pediatric NAFLD has not been performed. Methods: A total of 30 severely obese children (15 males; mean age 12.87 ± 2.19 years) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled in this study from September to December 2013. All patients underwent anthropometric and laboratory evaluation, including the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Results: Our study reveals some differences between OGTT and CGM in detecting NAFLD children with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). OGTT showed 2 (6.67%) patients with IFG and 1 (3.34%) with IGT, while CGM showed 5 (16.67%) patients with IFG and 6 (20%) with IGT. The daily blood glucose profile positively correlated with the baseline blood glucose (r = 0.39, p = 0.04) and the homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.56, p = 0.05). A positive correlation between hyperglycemia and liver fibrosis was found (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). Mean glucose values (F3-F4 group: 163.2 ± 35.92 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 136.58 ± 46.83 mg/dl and F2 group: 154.12 ± 22.51 mg/dl) and the difference between the minimum and maximum blood glucose levels (F3-F4 group: 110.21 ± 25.26 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 91.67 ± 15.97 mg/dl and F2 group: 92 ± 15.48 mg/dl) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the F3-F4 group compared to the F1 and F2 groups. Conclusion: Glucose profile derangement as detected by CGM is associated with the severity of hepatic fibrosis in children with NAFLD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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