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Ferri L.,University of Florence | Ferri L.,Paediatric Neurology Unit and Laboratories | Donati M.A.,Metabolic and Muscular Unit | Funghini S.,Paediatric Neurology Unit and Laboratories | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Infantile-onset skeletal myopathy Barth syndrome (OMIM #302060) is caused by mutations in the X-linked TAZ gene and hence usually manifests itself only in hemizygous males. Confirmatory testing is provided by mutational analysis of the TAZ gene and/or by biochemical dosage of the monolysocardiolipin/tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin ratio. Heterozygous females do not usually display a clinical phenotype but may undergo molecular genetic prenatal diagnosis during pregnancy. We characterized two novel and non-identical TAZ gene rearrangements in the offspring of a single female carrier of Barth syndrome. The hg19chrX:g.153634427-153644361delinsKP-123427.1 TAZ gene rearrangement was identified in her affected son, whereas the NM-000116.3(TAZ)c.-72-109+51del TAZ gene deletion was identified in a male foetus during a subsequent pregnancy. The unaffected mother was surprisingly found to harbour both variants in addition to a wild-type TAZ allele. A combination of breakpoint junction sequencing, linkage analysis and assessment of allelic dosage revealed that the two variants had originated independently from an apparently unstable/mutable TAZ maternal allele albeit via different mutational mechanisms. We conclude that molecular prenatal diagnosis in Barth syndrome families with probands carrying TAZ gene rearrangements should include investigation of the entire coding region of the TAZ gene. The identification of the breakpoint junctions of such gross gene rearrangements is important to ensure accurate ascertainment of carriership with a view to providing appropriate genetic counselling. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Pensato V.,Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Castellotti B.,Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Gellera C.,Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases Unit | Pareyson D.,Clinic of Central and Peripheral Degenerative Neuropathies Unit | And 13 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2014

Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders, clinically classified in pure and complex forms. Genetically, more than 70 different forms of spastic paraplegias have been characterized. A subgroup of complicate recessive forms has been distinguished for the presence of thin corpus callosum and white matter lesions at brain imaging. This group includes several genetic entities, but most of the cases are caused by mutations in the KIAA1840 (SPG11) and ZFYVE26 genes (SPG15). We studied a cohort of 61 consecutive patients with complicated spastic paraplegias, presenting at least one of the following features: mental retardation, thin corpus callosum and/or white matter lesions. DNA samples were screened for mutations in the SPG11/KIAA1840, SPG15/ZFYVE26, SPG21/ACP33, SPG35/FA2H, SPG48/AP5Z1 and SPG54/DDHD2 genes by direct sequencing. Sequence variants were found in 30 of 61 cases: 16 patients carried SPG11/KIAA1840 gene variants (26.2%), nine patients carried SPG15/ZFYVE26 variants (14.8%), three patients SPG35/FA2H (5%), and two patients carried SPG48/AP5Z1 gene variants (3%). Mean age at onset was similar in patients with SPG11 and with SPG15 (range 11-36), and the phenotype was mostly indistinguishable. Extrapyramidal signs were observed only in patients with SPG15, and epilepsy in three subjects with SPG11. Motor axonal neuropathy was found in 60% of cases with SPG11 and 70% of cases with SPG15. Subjects with SPG35 had intellectual impairment, spastic paraplegia, thin corpus callosum, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebellar atrophy. Two families had a late-onset presentation, and none had signs of brain iron accumulation. The patients with SPG48 were a 5-year-old child, homozygous for a missense SPG48/AP5Z1 variant, and a 51-year-old female, carrying two different nonsense variants. Both patients had intellectual deficits, thin corpus callosum and white matter lesions. None of the cases in our cohort carried mutations in the SPG21/ACP33 and SPG54/DDH2H genes. Our study confirms that the phenotype of patients with SPG11 and with SPG15 is homogeneous, whereas cases with SPG35 and with SPG48 cases present overlapping features, and a broader clinical spectrum. The large group of non-diagnosed subjects (51%) suggests further genetic heterogeneity. The observation of common clinical features in association with defects in different causative genes, suggest a general vulnerability of the corticospinal tract axons to a wide spectrum of cellular alterations. © 2014 The Author. Source


Hirst J.,University of Cambridge | Edgar J.R.,University of Cambridge | Esteves T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Esteves T.,EPHE Paris | And 16 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Adaptor proteins (AP 1-5) are heterotetrameric complexes that facilitate specialized cargo sorting in vesicular-mediated trafficking.Mutations in AP5Z1, encoding a subunit of the AP-5 complex, have been reported to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), although their impact at the cellular level has not been assessed. Here we characterize three independent fibroblast lines derived from skin biopsies of patients harbouring nonsense mutations in AP5Z1 and presenting with spastic paraplegia accompanied by neuropathy, parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. In all three patient-derived lines, we showthat there is complete loss of AP-5 ζ protein and a reduction in the associated AP-5 μ5 protein. Using ultrastructural analysis, we show that these patient-derived lines consistently exhibit abundant multilamellar structures that are positive formarkers of endolysosomes and are filled with aberrant storage material organized as exaggerated multilamellar whorls, striated belts and 'fingerprint bodies'. This phenotype can be replicated in a HeLa cell culture model by siRNA knockdown of AP-5ζ. The cellular phenotype bears striking resemblance to features described in a number of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Collectively, these findings reveal an emerging picture of the role of AP-5 in endosomal and lysosomal homeostasis, illuminates a potential pathomechanism that is relevant to the role of AP-5 in neurons and expands the understanding of recessive HSPs. Moreover, the resulting accumulation of storage material in endolysosomes leads us to propose that AP-5 deficiency represents a new type of LSDs. © The Author 2015. Source

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