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Zuradelli M.,Unit of Medical Oncology and Hematology | Peissel B.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Manoukian S.,Unit of Medical Genetics | Zaffaroni D.,Unit of Medical Genetics | And 8 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

Double heterozygosity (DH) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is a very rare finding, particularly in non-Ashkenazi individuals, and only a few cases have been reported to date. In addition, little is known on the pathological features of the tumors that occur in DH cases and on their family history of cancer. Four carriers of pathogenic mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified among women who underwent genetic counseling for hereditary susceptibility to breast and ovarian carcinoma at three different Italian institutions. Clinical, pathological, and family history data were collected from medical records and during genetic counseling sessions. All identified DH cases developed breast carcinoma and three of them were also diagnosed with ovarian carcinoma. Mean ages of breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis were 42.7 and 48.6 years, respectively. The majority of breast cancers showed a BRCA1-related phenotype, being negative for hormone receptors and HER2. Two cases reported different gastrointestinal tumors among relatives. Although the individuals described in this study show more severe clinical features in comparison to previously reported BRCA1 and BRCA2 DH cases, our observations support the hypothesis of a non specific phenotype of DH cases in terms of age of disease onset. In addition, our observations indicate that in DH patients breast carcinogenesis appears to be driven mainly by the mutations in BRCA1. The possible association of DH for BRCA gene mutations with gastrointestinal tumors is in keeping with previous reports, but needs to be confirmed by further analyses. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Nicoloso M.S.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Sun H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Sun H.,Wistar Institute | Spizzo R.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with polygenetic disorders, such as breast cancer (BC), can create, destroy, or modify microRNA (miRNA) binding sites; however, the extent to which SNPs interfere with miRNA gene regulation and affect cancer susceptibility remains largely unknown. We hypothesize that disruption of miRNA target binding by SNPs is a widespread mechanism relevant to cancer susceptibility. To test this, we analyzed SNPs known to be associated with BC risk, in silico and in vitro, for their ability to modify miRNA binding sites and miRNA gene regulation and referred to these as target SNPs. We identified rs1982073-TGFB1 and rs1799782-XRCC1 as target SNPs, whose alleles could modulate gene expression by differential interaction with miR-187 and miR-138, respectively. Genome-wide bioinformatics analysis predicted ∼64% of transcribed SNPs as target SNPs that can modify (increase/decrease) the binding energy of putative miRNA::mRNA duplexes by >90%. To assess whether target SNPs are implicated in BC susceptibility, we conducted a case-control population study and observed that germline occurrence of rs799917-BRCA1 and rs334348-TGFR1 significantly varies among populations with different risks of developing BC. Luciferase activity of target SNPs, allelic variants, and protein levels in cancer cell lines with different genotypes showed differential regulation of target genes following overexpression of the two interacting miRNAs (miR-638 and miR-628-Sp). Therefore, we propose that transcribed target SNPs alter miRNA gene regulation and, consequently, protein expression, contributing to the likelihood of cancer susceptibility, by a novel mechanism of subtle gene regulation. ©2010 American Association for Cancer Research.

Catucci I.,IFOM | Verderio P.,Unit of Medical Statistics and Biometry | Pizzamiglio S.,Unit of Medical Statistics and Biometry | Manoukian S.,Unit of Medical Genetics | And 15 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

The rs3834129 polymorphism, in the promoter of CASP8 gene, has been recently reported as associated with breast cancer risk in the general population, with the minor allele del having a protective effect. Some of the genetic variants found associated with breast cancer risk were reported as risk modifiers in individuals with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Here, we tested the effect of the rs3834129 del allele on breast cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. The rs3834129 was genotyped in a total of 1,207 Italian female BRCA mutation carriers. Of these, 740 carried a BRCA1 mutation and 467 a BRCA2 mutation. Overall, 699 were affected with breast cancer and 508 were unaffected. When considering class 1 (loss-of-function) BRCA mutations, hazard ratios estimated by weighted multivariable Cox regression model, for individuals with at least one copy of the del allele, were 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.99) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers combined, 1.74 (95% CI: 1.24-2.46) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.66-1.80) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. These results suggest that the minor allele del of rs3834129 is associated under a dominant model with increased breast cancer risk in carriers of BRCA1 mutations but not in carriers of BRCA2 mutations. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gaudet M.M.,Yeshiva University | Kirchhoff T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Green T.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Vijai J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 120 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2010

The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10-5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10-4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.86, p=3:8×10-5) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.85, p=6:6-×10-5). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.39, p=1:2×10-8). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer.

Ramus S.J.,University College London | Kartsonaki C.,University of Cambridge | Gayther S.A.,University College London | Pharoah P.D.P.,University of Cambridge | And 144 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. Method sWe genotyped rs3814113 in 10029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10-9) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10-4). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%. Conclusion Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. © 2010 The Author.

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