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Huk A.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Collins A.R.,University of Oslo | Yamani N.E.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Yamani N.E.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

The comet assay is widely used to test the genotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) but outcomes may vary when results from different laboratories, or even within one laboratory, are compared. We address some basic methodological considerations, such as the importance of carrying out physico-chemical characterisation of the ENMs in test-medium, performing uptake and cytotoxicity tests, and testing several genotoxicity-related endpoints. In this commentary, we discuss the different ways in which concentration of ENMs can be expressed, and stress the need to include appropriate controls and reference standards to monitor variation and avoid interference. Treatment conditions, including cell number, cell culture plate format and volume of treatment medium on the plate are crucial factors that may impact on results and thus should be kept constant within the study. © 2014 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. Source

de Lapuente J.,Unit of Experimental Toxicology and Ecotoxicology UTOX CERETOX | Lourenco J.,University of Aveiro | Mendo S.A.,University of Aveiro | Borras M.,Unit of Experimental Toxicology and Ecotoxicology UTOX CERETOX | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2015

Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers. (iv) To build a constructive criticism and summarize the needs for protocol improvements for future test applications within the field of ecotoxicology. The Comet Assay is still developing and its potential is yet underexploited in experimental models, mesocosmos or natural ecosystems. © 2015 de Lapuente, Lourenço, Mendo, Borràs, Martins, Costa and Pacheco. Source

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