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Huk A.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Collins A.R.,University of Oslo | Yamani N.E.,Norwegian Institute For Air Research | Yamani N.E.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

The comet assay is widely used to test the genotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) but outcomes may vary when results from different laboratories, or even within one laboratory, are compared. We address some basic methodological considerations, such as the importance of carrying out physico-chemical characterisation of the ENMs in test-medium, performing uptake and cytotoxicity tests, and testing several genotoxicity-related endpoints. In this commentary, we discuss the different ways in which concentration of ENMs can be expressed, and stress the need to include appropriate controls and reference standards to monitor variation and avoid interference. Treatment conditions, including cell number, cell culture plate format and volume of treatment medium on the plate are crucial factors that may impact on results and thus should be kept constant within the study. © 2014 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Montpellier University, University of Pavia, University of Milan, Unit of Experimental Toxicology and Ecotoxicology UTOX CERETOX and Bambino Gesu Childrens Hospital IRCCS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied toxicology : JAT | Year: 2016

Tumor recurrence after the incomplete removal of a tumor mass inside brain tissue is the main reason that scientists are working to identify new strategies in brain oncologic therapy. In particular, in the treatment of the most malignant astrocytic tumor glioblastoma, the use of magnetic nanoparticles seems to be one of the most promising keys in overcoming this problem, namely by means of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment. However, the major unknown issue related to the use of nanoparticles is their toxicological behavior when they are in contact with biological tissues. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of glioblastoma and other tumor cell lines with superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles covalently coated with a rhamnose derivative, using proper cytotoxic assays. In the present study, we focused our attention on different strategies of toxicity evaluation comparing different cytotoxicological approaches in order to identify the biological damages induced by the nanoparticles. The data show an intensive internalization process of rhamnose-coated iron oxide nanoparticles by the cells, suggesting that rhamnose moiety is a promising biocompatible coating in favoring cells uptake. With regards to cytotoxicity, a 35% cell death at a maximum concentration, mainly as a result of mitochondrial damages, was found. This cytotoxic behavior, along with the high uptake ability, could facilitate the use of these rhamnose-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles for future MFH therapeutic treatments.


de Lapuente J.,Unit of Experimental Toxicology and Ecotoxicology UTOX CERETOX | Lourenco J.,University of Aveiro | Mendo S.A.,University of Aveiro | Borras M.,Unit of Experimental Toxicology and Ecotoxicology UTOX CERETOX | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2015

Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers. (iv) To build a constructive criticism and summarize the needs for protocol improvements for future test applications within the field of ecotoxicology. The Comet Assay is still developing and its potential is yet underexploited in experimental models, mesocosmos or natural ecosystems. © 2015 de Lapuente, Lourenço, Mendo, Borràs, Martins, Costa and Pacheco.


PubMed | University of Aveiro, Unit of Experimental Toxicology and Ecotoxicology UTOX CERETOX and New University of Lisbon
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in genetics | Year: 2015

Since Singh and colleagues, in 1988, launched to the scientific community the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) protocol, or Comet Assay, its uses and applications has been increasing. The thematic areas of its current employment in the evaluation of genetic toxicity are vast, either in vitro or in vivo, both in the laboratory and in the environment, terrestrial or aquatic. It has been applied to a wide range of experimental models: bacteria, fungi, cells culture, arthropods, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and humans. This document is intended to be a comprehensive review of what has been published to date on the field of ecotoxicology, aiming at the following main aspects: (i) to show the most relevant experimental models used as bioindicators both in the laboratory and in the field. Fishes are clearly the most adopted group, reflecting their popularity as bioindicator models, as well as a primary concern over the aquatic environment health. Amphibians are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changes, mainly due to an early aquatic-dependent development stage and a highly permeable skin. Moreover, in the terrestrial approach, earthworms, plants or mammalians are excellent organisms to be used as experimental models for genotoxic evaluation of pollutants, complex mix of pollutants and chemicals, in both laboratory and natural environment. (ii) To review the development and modifications of the protocols used and the cell types (or tissues) used. The most recent developments concern the adoption of the enzyme linked assay (digestion with lesion-specific repair endonucleases) and prediction of the ability to repair of oxidative DNA damage, which is becoming a widespread approach, albeit challenging. For practical/technical reasons, blood is the most common choice but tissues/cells like gills, sperm cells, early larval stages, coelomocytes, liver or kidney have been also used. (iii) To highlight correlations with other biomarkers. (iv) To build a constructive criticism and summarize the needs for protocol improvements for future test applications within the field of ecotoxicology. The Comet Assay is still developing and its potential is yet underexploited in experimental models, mesocosmos or natural ecosystems.

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