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Abbate Daga G.,University of Turin | Campisi S.,University of Turin | Marzola E.,University of Turin | Rocca G.,University of Turin | And 6 more authors.
Eating and Weight Disorders | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients with Eating Disorders (ED) who restore menses differ from those who remain amenorrheic after treatment and to provide longitudinal data about this debated criterion of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). METHODS: 184 outpatients were recruited: 50 patients with AN Restrictive type, 75 amenorrheic Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) patients, 24 patients who recovered from AN with persistent amenorrhea, and 35 amenorrheic patients without ED. All participants were clinically assessed by psychiatrists and gynaecologists at the beginning of treatment and at the one-year follow-up. They also completed several psychometric tests: Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Temperament and Character Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: After treatment, a large portion of the sample resumed menses but very few recovered completely from the ED. No psychopathological variables could clearly predict the recovery of menses in the different groups. However, Body Mass Index and some biological variables were associated with restoration of menses in ED patients. CONCLUSION: Resumption of menses was not associated with a less severe eating symptomatology at the beginning of treatment nor with unequivocal psychopathological changes after treatment. It is important that clinicians consider not only the presence or absence of regular menses but also that they improve both ED screening and assessment in amenorrheic patients. Amenorrhea does not seem to represent a specific predictor of severity of illness or to show prognostic value. ©2012, Editrice Kurtis. Source

Campagnoli C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Pasanisi P.,Epidemiology Unit | Abba C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Ambroggio S.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Breast Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Serum levels of insulin and testosterone may affect both breast cancer (BC) incidence and prognosis. Metformin reduces hyperglycemia and insulin levels in patients with diabetes. In women without diabetes and with polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin lowers both insulin and testosterone levels. Patients with diabetes who are treated with metformin showed a lower risk of cancer; a protective effect of metformin also was observed for BC. Recently, studies on metformin use for prevention or treatment of BC have been proposed in patients who are not diabetic. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of different doses of metformin on serum levels of insulin and testosterone in those postmenopausal patients with breast cancer and without diabetes who have basal testosterone levels <0.28 ng/mL (median value). Patients and Methods: A total of 125 eligible women were initially invited to take metformin 500 mg/d for 3 months. The 108 women who completed the first 3 months were invited to continue the study with metformin 1000 mg/d (500 mg twice a day [b.i.d.]) for 1 month. The women were then randomized into 2 groups, and, for the subsequent 5 months, 1 group increased the dose by taking metformin 1500 mg/d (500 mg 3 times a day [t.i.d.]), and the other group continued with metformin 1000 mg /d (500 [b.i.d.]). Results: A total of 96 women completed the study: 43 women received 1500 mg/d, and 53 women received 1000 mg/d. The women who took 1500 mg/d showed a significant reduction of insulin level, HOMA-IR index (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index), testosterone level, and free androgen index compared with women treated with 1000 mg/d. After treatment with 1500 mg/d, the insulin level decreased by 25% and the testosterone level decreased by 23%. Conclusion: Both these changes might have a prognostic importance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Campagnoli C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Pasanisi P.,Epidemiology Unit | Castellano I.,University of Turin | Abba C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | And 2 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

Recent data can help to better define the long debated relationship between androgens and breast cancer (BC) after menopause. We reviewed the available literature data on: the origin of androgens after menopause, the association between circulating androgens and BC incidence and recurrence, the relationship between circulating and intratumoral hormones, the prognostic significance of the presence of androgen receptors (ARs) in the different BC subtypes, the androgen effect on BC cell lines, and the relationship between androgens and aromatase inhibitors. Epidemiological, clinical, and preclinical data on the role of androgens and of ARs on estrogen receptor (ER)-negative BC are somewhat controversial. However, most preclinical studies suggest that activated ARs, when present, have a proliferative effect, particularly in HER2 expressing cell lines, due to the cross-talk between AR and HER2 pathways. As regards ER-positive BC, epidemiological studies associate androgen levels with increased incidence and risk of recurrences, whilst clinical studies associate the AR positivity with a better prognosis. Preclinical studies suggest that the action of androgens is bidirectional: mainly proliferative, because circulating androgens are the precursors of estrogens, but also anti-proliferative, because AR activation restrains ER activity. The relative increase of androgenic action that follows the blocking of androgen aromatization into estrogens by aromatase inhibitors (AIs), could contribute to their therapeutic efficacy in AR-positive cases. Available data, although defining a complex picture, suggest that circulating androgen levels are clinically relevant, particularly when AIs are used. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Campagnoli C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Berrino F.,Epidemiology Unit | Venturelli E.,Epidemiology Unit | Abba C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Breast Cancer | Year: 2013

Introduction Diabetic patients treated with metformin have a lower risk of developing BC or a better BC prognosis. Metformin might reduce cancer growth through direct antiproliferative effects or through indirect mechanisms, particularly the reduction of insulin. In a randomized study on nondiabetic BC patients in natural menopause with high testosterone levels, we observed a significant decrease in insulin and in testosterone levels with metformin 1500 mg/d compared with 1000 mg/d. We present the results of a new analysis of our study on the effect of metformin on the bioavailability of sex hormones. Patients and Methods One hundred twenty-four eligible women were initially invited to take metformin 500 mg/d for 3 months. The 108 women who completed the first 3 months continued the study using 1000 mg/d for 1 month. The women were then randomized into 2 groups, and, for the subsequent 5 months, 1 group increased the dose to 1500 mg/d, and the other group continued with 1000 mg/d. Results Ninety-six women completed the study, 43 receiving metformin 1500 mg/day, and 53 receiving 1000 mg/day. The women receiving 1500 mg/d showed a greater and significant reduction of free testosterone (-29%) and estradiol (-38%), a borderline significant reduction of estrone and insulin-like growth factor-1, and a nonsignificant reduction of androstenedione. They also showed a nonsignificant increase of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Conclusion Metformin does not interfere with the production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Besides, it decreases estradiol levels, basically through the reduction of testosterone. These hormonal changes might have clinical relevance. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Campagnoli C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Abba C.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Ambroggio S.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Brucato T.,Unit of Endocrinological Gynecology | Pasanisi P.,Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2013

In western women, the endometrium is frequently exposed, even after menopause, to the endogenous hormonal stimulation. Such a stimulation increases the risk of pathologic conditions such as endometrial hyperplasia and type I (endometrioid) endometrial adenocarcinoma. Metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance and type II diabetes promote the endometrial stimulation, and are recognized risk factors for endometrial cancer. Furthermore, chronic hyperinsulinemia linked both to obesity and metabolic syndrome influences endometrial proliferation through direct and indirect actions. Intentional weight loss, calorie restriction and physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of the endometrial pathology. Biological mechanisms include reduction in insulin and sex steroid hormone levels. In addition to life-style modifications, the antidiabetic metformin may be proposed as preventive agent. Metformin reduces the metabolic syndrome, lowers insulin and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women, and it is a potent inhibitor of endometrial cancer cell proliferation. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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