Unit of Diabetology

Bergamo, Italy

Unit of Diabetology

Bergamo, Italy

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Gaspari F.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Ruggenenti P.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Porrini E.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Porrini E.,Hospital Universitario Of Canarias | And 13 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2013

There are no adequate studies that have formally tested the performance of different estimating formulas in patients with type 2 diabetes both with and without overt nephropathy. Here we evaluated the agreement between baseline GFRs, GFR changes at month 6, and long-term GFR decline measured by iohexol plasma clearance or estimated by 15 creatinine-based formulas in 600 type 2 diabetics followed for a median of 4.0 years. Ninety patients were hyperfiltering. The number of those identified by estimation formulas ranged from 0 to 24:58 were not identified by any formula. Baseline GFR was significantly underestimated and a 6-month GFR reduction was missed in hyperfiltering patients. Long-term GFR decline was also underestimated by all formulas in the whole study group and in hyper-, normo-, and hypofiltering patients considered separately. Five formulas generated positive slopes in hyperfiltering patients. Baseline concordance correlation coefficients and total deviation indexes ranged from 32.1% to 92.6% and from 0.21 to 0.53, respectively. Concordance correlation coefficients between estimated and measured long-term GFR decline ranged from -0.21 to 0.35. The agreement between estimated and measured values was also poor within each subgroup considered separately. Thus, our study questions the use of any estimation formula to identify hyperfiltering patients and monitor renal disease progression and response to treatment in type 2 diabetics without overt nephropathy. © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.


Ruggenenti P.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Porrini E.L.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Gaspari F.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Motterlini N.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | And 12 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE - To describe the prevalence and determinants of hyperfiltration (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] ≥120 mL/min/1.73 m2), GFR decline, and nephropathy onset or progression in type 2 diabetic patients with normo- or microalbuminuria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We longitudinally studied 600 hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria <200 μg/min and who were retrieved from two randomized trials testing the renal effect of trandolapril and delapril. Target blood pressure (BP) was <120/80 mmHg, and HbA1c was <7%. GFR, albuminuria, and glucose disposal rate (GDR) were centrally measured by iohexol plasma clearance, nephelometry in three consecutive overnight urine collections, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, respectively. RESULTS - Over a median (range) follow-up of 4.0 (1.7-8.1) years, GFR declined by 3.37 (5.71-1.31) mL/min/1.73 m2 per year. GFR change was bimodal over time: a larger reduction at 6 months significantly predicted slower subsequent decline (coefficient: -0.0054; SE: 0.0009), particularly among hyperfiltering patients. A total of 90 subjects (15%) were hyperfiltering at inclusion, and 11 of 47 (23.4%) patients with persistent hyperfiltration progressed to micro- or macroalbuminuria versus 53 (10.6%) of the 502 who had their hyperfiltration ameliorated at 6 months or were nonhyperfiltering since inclusion (hazard ratio 2.16 [95% CI 1.13-4.14]). Amelioration of hyperfiltration was independent of baseline characteristics or ACE inhibition. It was significantly associated with improved BP and metabolic control, amelioration of GDR, and slower long-term GFR decline on follow-up. CONCLUSIONS - Despite intensified treatment, patients with type 2 diabetes have a fast GFR decline. Hyperfiltration affects a subgroup of patients and may contribute to renal function loss and nephropathy onset or progression. Whether amelioration of hyperfiltration is renoprotective is worth investigating. © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.


PubMed | University of Padua, University of Bari, Unit of Diabetology, The Second University of Naples and 7 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Acta diabetologica | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) use in pediatric and adult age groups.Data were collected with a questionnaire sent by e-mail to CSII-experienced Diabetes Centers. The questionnaire assessed: (1) number of CSII-treated patients; (2) patient demographic data and characteristics; (3) structure and organization of Diabetes Centers providing CSII therapy; (4) pump characteristics (conventional pump, sensor-augmented pump); and (5) CSII dropouts.A total of 217 out of 1093 Italian centers participated: 51 pediatric (23.5%) and 166 (76.5%) adult centers (AP). Compared to a survey performed in 2005, there was a significant increase in the number of pediatric units when compared to adult units (112 vs 37%, respectively, p<0.05). Pediatric age is characterized by a greater concern for quality of life and injections, and a higher dropout rate (10.6 vs 8.9%) mainly related to pump wearability and site reactions. A complete diabetes-care team is associated with a superior use of technology (fewer dropouts, increased CGM and advanced bolus use) which is, however, still used in a small percentage of patients.In Italy, the number of CSII-treated pediatric patients (PP) is growing more significantly when compared to adults. Only 60% of all patients are using advanced functions and 20% are using CGMs continuously. This confirms the great interest in diabetes technology that is growing in pediatric diabetologists. However, much improvement is warranted in the organization and specialized training of pediatric, adult and transitional facilities.


Ruggenenti P.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Cattaneo D.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Rota S.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Iliev I.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | And 8 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE - To assess the effects of inhibited gastrointestinal cholesterol absorption in statin-treated dyslipidemic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In a multicenter prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, we primarily compared by ANCOVA the effect of 2-month ezetimibe (10 mg/day) or placebo therapy on LDL cholesterol serum levels in 108 type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria <200 μg/min and total cholesterol concentrations >135 mg/dl despite simvastatin treatment (40 mg/day). RESULTS - Unlike placebo, ezetimibe decreased LDL cholesterol from 99 ± 31 to 66 ± 22 mg/dl, total cholesterol from 162 ± 36 to 124 ± 30 mg/dl, and apolipoprotein B from 83 ± 22 to 64 ± 18 mg/dl (P < 0.0001 for all changes versus placebo). A total of 72 and 17% of patients on ezetimibe or placebo achieved LDL levels <70 mg/dl, respectively (P < 0.0001). Treatment was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS - Adding ezetimibe to simvastatin therapy helps to improve the proatherogenic lipoprotein profile in type 2 diabetic patients who fail to reach recommended lipid targets with statin therapy alone. © 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.


Rurali E.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Noris M.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Chianca A.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Donadelli R.,Irccs Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | And 11 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2013

In patients with diabetes, impaired ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13) proteolysis of highly thrombogenic von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers may accelerate renal and cardiovascular complications. Restoring physiological VWF handling might contribute to ACE inhibitors' (ACEi) reno- and cardioprotective effects. To assess how Pro618Ala ADAMTS13 variants and related proteolytic activity interact with ACEi therapy in predicting renal and cardiovascular complications, we genotyped 1,163 normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients from BErgamo NEphrologic DIabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT). Interaction between Pro618Ala and ACEi was significant in predicting both renal and combined renal and cardiovascular events. The risk for renal or combined events versus reference Ala carriers on ACEi progressively increased from Pro/Pro homozygotes on ACEi (hazard ratio 2.80 [95% CI 0.849-9.216] and 1.58 [0.737-3.379], respectively) to Pro/Pro homozygotes on non- ACEi (4.77 [1.484-15.357] and 1.99 [0.944-4.187]) to Ala carriers on non-ACEi (8.50 [2.416-29.962] and 4.00 [1.739-9.207]). In a substudy, serum ADAMTS13 activity was significantly lower in Ala carriers than in Pro/Pro homozygotes and in case subjects with renal, cardiovascular, or combined events than in diabetic control subjects without events. ADAMTS13 activity significantly and negatively correlated with all outcomes. In patients with diabetes, ADAMTS13 618Ala variant associated with less proteolytic activity, higher risk of chronic complications, and better response to ACEi therapy. Screening for Pro618Ala polymorphism may help identify patients with diabetes at highest risk who may benefit the most from early reno- and cardioprotective therapy. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.


PubMed | University of Rome La Sapienza, Unit of Diabetology, IRCSS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza and Mendel Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD | Year: 2016

The rate of mortality in diabetic patients, especially of cardiovascular origin, is about twice as much that of nondiabetic individuals. Thus, the pathogenic factors shaping the risk of mortality in such patients must be unraveled in order to target intensive prevention and treatment strategies. The Sapienza University Mortality and Morbidity Event Rate (SUMMER) study in diabetes is aimed at identifying new molecular promoters of mortality and major vascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The SUMMER study in diabetes is an observational, prospective, and collaborative study conducted on at least 5000 consecutive patients with T2DM, recruited from several diabetes clinics of Central-Southern Italy and followed up for a minimum of 5 years. The primary outcome is all-cause mortality; the secondary outcomes are cardiovascular mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and dialysis. A biobank will be created for genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analysis, in order to unravel new molecular predictors of mortality and vascular morbidity.The SUMMER study in diabetes is aimed at identifying new molecular promoters of mortality and major vascular events in patients with T2DM. These novel pathogenic factors will most likely be instrumental in unraveling new pathways underlying such dramatic events. In addition, they will also be used as additional markers to increase the performance of the already existing risk-scoring models for predicting the above-mentioned outcomes in T2DM, as well as for setting up new preventive and treatment strategies, possibly tailored to specific pathogenic backgrounds.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02311244; URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02311244?term=SUMMER&rank=5.


Colombo G.L.,University of Pavia | Agabiti-Rosei E.,Spedali Civili | Margonato A.,University of Milan | Mencacci C.,A.O. Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet. Methods: We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs) and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali) in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic) and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04. Results: The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL) represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs) show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines. Conclusions: Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic consequences, both for the National Health Service and patients, considering that the price difference between brand and generic drugs is completely charged on patients. © 2013 Colombo et al.


PubMed | Unit of Diabetology, University of Pavia, A.O. Fatebenefratelli e Oftalmico, Spedali Civili and University of Milan
Type: | Journal: Atherosclerosis. Supplements | Year: 2016

The use of generics, equivalent but less expensive drugs, is an important opportunity to reduce healthcare expenditure.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of substitution between unbranded generics on persistence and adherence to therapy in two Italian Local Health Units (ASL) in real-world clinical practice in 5 therapeutic areas using tracing drugs. Substitution of generic drugs is any change in the name of the manufacturer of the generic drug. The therapeutic areas were: diabetes (metformin); hypertension (amlodipine); dyslipidemia (simvastatin); psychiatry (sertraline); cardiology (propafenone); osteoporosis (alendronate). The retrospective analysis was carried out on the administrative databases of two Local Healthcare Units (ASL - Azienda sanitaria locale Bergamo (BG) and Pavia (PV)) in the Lombardy Region of Italy. The correlation between persistence and adherence with the different cohorts of generic substitution frequency within each therapeutic area was then calculated.According to the inclusion criteria, 23,773 patients were evaluated. Patients were observed for a period of 36 months starting from the first drug delivery (index date). The median age of the overall population was above 61 years in all therapeutic areas. The generic drug substitution occurred in 61.5% of patients (BG: 57.6% and PV: 65.4% respectively); Hypertension was the therapeutic area with the highest percentage of patients with substitutions. Patients adherence, evaluated by the Medical Possession Rate (MPR) and persistence to the treatment decreases with the increase in the frequency of generic substitutions. This observation was confirmed by a statistically significant negative correlation (p-value of <0.001) between the adherence and persistence and the number of generic substitutions in each therapeutic area and Local Healthcare Units (ASL).Adherence is one of the pillars of the patients health management in the control and prevention of progression of the disease. Several factors, such as ageing, comorbidities, and polypharmacy, may affect adherence and influence the outcome of treatments. These results are in line with studies supporting the possibility that the change of package appearance each time a new prescription is dispensed may create confusion and ultimately reduce patients adherence. Clinicians and decision makers should consider the impact of frequent generic substitutions on persistence and adherence, which may influence efficacy and/or safety.


Ruggenenti P.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Fassi A.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Ilieva A.P.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Iliev I.P.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2011

Objectives: To address whether nondihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker added-on angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor therapy ameliorates albuminuria and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients. Design: The Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial-B was a multicentre, prospective, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing renal and cardiovascular outcomes in 281 hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria randomized to at least 2-year VeraTran (verapamil/trandolapril 180 mg/2 mg daily) or trandolapril (2 mg daily, identical image) treatment. Main outcome was persistent macroalbuminuria (albuminuria >200 μg/min in two consecutive visits). Treatment targets were SBP/DBP less than 120/80 mmHg and HbA1C less than 7%. Results: Over a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 18 patients (13%) on VeraTran vs. 15 (10.5%) on trandolapril [unadjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) 1.07 (0.54-2.12), P = 0.852] progressed to macroalbuminuria, respectively; 62 (44.9%) vs. 71 (49.7%) [0.80 (0.57-1.12), P = 0.198] regressed to normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion <20 μg/min), and 20 (14.5%) vs. 21 (14.7%) [hazard ratio 0.93 (0.50-1.72), P = 0.816] had major cardiovascular events. BP and metabolic control were similar between groups. Patients with cardiovascular events were significantly less [13 (9.8%) vs. 28 (18.9%), hazard ratio: 0.37 (0.19-0.71), P = 0.003] among those regressing to normoalbuminuria than those without regression. Difference was independent of treatment allocation and was significant also after adjusting for baseline characteristics [0.40 (0.20-0.79), P = 0.009], follow-up SBP [0.40 (0.20-0.80), P = 0.010] or DBP [0.36 (0.18-0.73), P = 0.004] BP or HbA1C [0.43 (0.21-0.88), P = 0.021]. Conclusion: In hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria, verapamil added-on trandolapril did not improve renal or cardiovascular outcomes. Independent of verapamil, trandolapril normalized albuminuria in half of patients and this translated into significant cardioprotection. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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