Pistorius T.,UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH |
Carodenuto S.,UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH |
Wathum G.,UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH
Forests | Year: 2017
Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge-it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia's largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large-scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro-alpine and sub-afro-alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots. © 2017 by the authors.
Peters D.M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Wirth K.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wurttemberg |
Bohr B.,Nationalpark Schwarzwald |
Ferranti F.,Nature&Society Consultancy in Research and Publishing |
And 11 more authors.
Energy, Sustainability and Society | Year: 2015
Background: In the last decade, the demand for and supply of energy wood from forests has increased, and experts expect a further increase in the future due to political and societal changes. The objective of this paper was to provide a qualitative analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions of current and future trade-offs as well as of synergies between energy wood production and use and other forest ecosystem services (ES). Methods: We developed an explorative research approach and conducted semi-structured interviews with a total of 103 interviewees of six selected stakeholder groups in five European countries: Finland, Germany, Norway, Slovenia and Spain. For the analysis, we adopted a qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The results of this empirical study indicate that, across the five countries, stakeholders perceive similar trade-offs and synergies. Stakeholders perceive a strong synergy with employment whereas trade-offs regarding conservation of biodiversity are the most critical issue related to energy wood production in forests. Furthermore, stakeholders continue the classic debate about forest protection versus forest use in the energy wood context. Conclusions: Effects of energy wood production and use need to be taken into account in policy development and forest management in order to address current and future trade-offs and to tap the full potential of synergies related to other forest ES. Different characteristics of countries and regions need to be considered, and decisions need to be fostered by long-term and far-reaching political frameworks. © 2015, Peters et al.; licensee Springer.
Lindstad B.H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences |
Pistorius T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Pistorius T.,UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH |
Ferranti F.,European forest Institute |
And 11 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2015
In this explorative study, we compare national policies affecting production and use of forest-based bioenergy in five European countries: Finland, Germany, Norway, Slovenia and Spain. Our methodological approach combines horizontal and vertical policy interaction with three policy layers: policy objectives, policy instruments and thematic elements in implementation. Great variations are found in national bioenergy policies, with complex interlinkages revealed to national renewable energy and forest policies (horizontal dimension) and to EU policies (vertical dimension). Horizontally, the national bioenergy objectives are closely linked to forest policy objectives and, in Finland, also to renewable energy objectives. Policy instruments promoting bioenergy demand interact to various degrees with both renewable energy and forest policies, while supply side instruments, as well as implementation aspects, interact most closely with forest policies. Vertically, highest degree of interactions with EU polices are in this study revealed for policy objectives and instruments, less so for implementation. It is concluded that consideration of policy layers are useful for increasing the understanding of the complexity in horizontal and vertical policy interactions, and thus an important basis for understanding how to minimize conflicts and enhancing synergies among multiple forest objectives. We argue that the chosen analytical framework can enhance the understanding of complex interlinkages between bioenergy and broader policy and market developments. Identifying these complex interactions can contribute to facilitate policy developments promoting and regulating future production and use of forest-based bioenergy, while taking other forest objectives into consideration. •Horizontal and vertical policy interactions vary greatly across policy layers.•Bioenergy policies interact with national forest and renewable energy policies.•National bioenergy policies are influenced by EU climate and energy policies.•Policy layers help illuminate complexity in policy interactions.•Analytical framework can serve structured analysis of policy interactions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Bosman R.,Erasmus University Rotterdam |
Loorbach D.,Erasmus University Rotterdam |
Frantzeskaki N.,Erasmus University Rotterdam |
Pistorius T.,UNIQUE Forestry and Land Use GmbH
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions | Year: 2014
Since its introduction in the National Environmental Policy Plan in 2001 the notion of 'energy transition' is firmly rooted in the Dutch energy debate. Despite political efforts to shift to a sustainable energy system, the Netherlands is lagging behind other European countries. Scholarly literature generally ascribes such slow developments to the dominant role of incumbents. In this paper we explore how prominent incumbents of the Dutch energy system discursively frame the energy transition by unravelling their existing and evolving storylines. Our results show that decarbonization in the context of a European energy market is currently seen as the dominant driver for the energy transition, linked to discursive elements on keeping the energy supply secure and affordable. We found tensions within this dominant storyline and emerging storylines with the potential to undermine the dominant one. In response, incumbents are discursively repositioning themselves, thereby restructuring coalitions - possibly indicating discursive regime destabilization. © 2014 The Authors.
Ronteltap A.,University Utrecht |
Reinders M.J.,LEI Wageningen UR |
van Dijk S.M.,UNIQUE Forestry and Land Use GmbH |
Heijting S.,Wageningen University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics | Year: 2016
New agrifood technologies are often difficult to grasp for the public, which may lead to resistance or even rejection. Insight into which technology features determine public acceptability of the technology could offer guidelines for responsible technology development. This paper systematically assesses the relative importance of specific technology features for consumer response in the agrifood domain in two consecutive studies. Prominent technology features were selected from expert judgment and literature. The effects of these features on consumer evaluation were tested in a consumer study (n = 745). Fictitious technologies were used to avoid any uncontrollable contextual influences that existing new technologies may evoke. Results show that technologies that were seen as more natural and newer were perceived less risky, more beneficial, and were evaluated more positively. Technologies applied to food were judged to be more beneficial, but also more risky than those applied to non-food. Technologies used in the production process were perceived to be less risky and evaluated more positively than those used in the product. Technologies owned by the market leader were perceived to be more beneficial, and evaluated more positively than those that were freely available. In a next study (n = 440), effects of the technology features on consumer response were tested for existing new agrifood technologies. This study replicated the results for perceived naturalness, perceived newness, and place in the production process where the technology is applied. However, in contrast to the first study, we did not find an effect of application area (food versus non-food) and technology ownership. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Buchholz T.,University of Vermont |
Tennigkeit T.,UNIQUE Forestry and Land Use GmbH |
Weinreich A.,UNIQUE Forestry and Land Use GmbH |
Windhorst K.,UNIQUE Forestry and Land Use GmbH |
DaSilva I.,Strathmore University
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013
Increasing electricity supply in Sub-Saharan Africa is a prerequisite to enable economic development and reduce poverty. Renewable sources such as wood-fueled power plants are being promoted for social, environmental and economic reasons. We analyzed an economic model of a vertically integrated system of short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) plantations coupled with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant under Sub-Saharan African conditions. We analyzed a 5MW (electric) base-case scenario under Ugandan conditions with a 2870ha Eucalyptus grandis plantation and a productivity of 12tha-1y-1 (oven dry basis) under a 5-year rotation. Plant construction and maintenance constituted 27% and 41% of total costs, respectively. Plantation productivity, carbon credit sales as well as land, fuel, labor & transport costs played an economic minor role. Highly influential variables included plant efficiency & construction costs, plantation design (spacing and rotation length) and harvest technologies. We conclude that growing 12-24tha-1y-1 at a five year rotation can produce IRR's of 16 and 19% over 30-years, respectively. Reducing rotation length significantly reduced short-term financial risk related to frontloaded costs and relatively late revenues from electricity sales. Long-term feed-in tariffs and availability of a heat market played a significant economic role. The base-case scenario's 30-year IRR dropped from 16% to 9% when a heat market was absent. Results suggest a leveling-off of economies-of-scale effects above 20MW (electric) installations. Implementation-related research needs for pilot activities should focus on SRWC productivity and energy life cycle analysis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Gavrilut I.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Halalisan A.-F.,Transilvania University of Brasov |
Giurca A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Sotirov M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Sotirov M.,UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH
Forests | Year: 2016
This explorative study aims to shed light on the ways in which Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification interacts with the implementation of the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) in Romania. To this end, the EUTR implementation process is examined, and the relationship between this implementation and FSC certification is explored. There is a particular focus on the extent to which certification has helped companies to comply with EUTR requirements. The study uses the analytical framework of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) and a mixed research approach. It is found that FSC certification has to a large extent helped companies to prepare for and align with the EUTR's requirements, in particular concerning risk assessment and risk mitigation procedures needed for a due diligence system (DDS), and in the context of a "policy vacuum" period related to EUTR implementation. Moreover, recent changes in the FSC standard make it theoretically in line with EUTR requirements. However, difficulties remain in relation to the lack of information, costs and bureaucracy associated with both EUTR implementation and FSC certification. Notably, in the absence of a monitoring organization, the establishment of a viable DDS is still problematic as many companies remain unprepared for developing their own systems. Finally, the EUTR and its risk management requirements may have partly fueled the increase in uptake of chain of custody (CoC) certification in Romania. However, due to the risk of CoC certificates including illegally sourced timber, this recent uptake in certification does not necessarily indicate improved sustainable forest management (SFM) or full compliance with EUTR. © 2016 by the authors.