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Fedrizzi B.,University of Padua | Versini G.,Unione Italiana Vini Soc. Coop. | Casarotti E.M.,University of Verona | Nicolis E.,University of Verona | Ferrarini R.,University of Verona
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2012

Traditional Georgian wines are produced using long-time skin contact, often in jars of clay in absence of sulfur dioxide and other adjuvants. Long-time skin maceration white wines are recently produced at industrial level also in Italy to extract more antioxidant phenolic compounds and obtain a possible different taste and varietal flavor development by aging in quite stable conditions. The consumers, even if rather skeptic for the sensory wine character, judge with an emotional appeal these 'interesting' wines. The present research involves mostly wines produced from the Garganega grape variety, which is spread in the Veneto region in northern Italy and it is used to obtain the renowned Soave white wine. Applying SPE and HS-SPME GC-MS analyses on the free fraction of wine as such we investigated the free aroma variation and compared the products from the typical free-run vinification with those obtained via a skin maceration of several months. Particular attention has been paid to the prefermentative and varietal compound as C6-alcohols, monoterpenols, benzenoids and norisprenoids, as so as to fermentation derived substances like hydroxyalkyl ethyl esters, lactones, amides, furanols, aryl alcohols like tyrosol and tryptophol, HCA derived ethyl esters, some sulfur compounds, etc. An important increment of some of these compounds has been already observed in long-time skin fermented wines and some of this variations can be connected to sensorial nuances in agreement with what is reported in the literature. All the wines have been submitted to descriptive profiling and preference tests. Finally, this 'ancient' vinification method could offer an interesting chance - depending on the variety characteristics - for preparing 'unusual', properly aged products. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Tosi E.,Centro per la Sperimentazione in Vitivinicoltura | Fedrizzi B.,University of Padua | Fedrizzi B.,Research and Innovation Center Fondazione Edmund Machinery | Azzolini M.,Centro per la Sperimentazione in Vitivinicoltura | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effects of noble rot on the overall quality of Amarone wine, a "Passito" dry red wine, produced by a traditional withering grape process are poorly understood. Wines obtained from healthy and selected grapes infected by noble rot were compared. Validation of the experimental plan was carried out by determining glycerol and gluconic acid content, laccase activity and microbial analysis of the musts. Botrytis cinerea infection produced significant variation in esterase and β-glucosidase activity of grape must. Aroma analysis in healthy and botrytised wines was carried out by SPE extraction followed by GC-MS quantification. A decrease of several fermentative esters was observed in botrytised wine, while wine produced from healthy grapes showed a higher fatty acid content. Molecules such as 1-octen-3-ol, phenylacetaldehyde and furaneol were positively linked to the noble-rotten grapes. Interestingly, γ-nonalactone and 4-carbethoxy-γ- butyrolactone increased, while sherry lactones decreased in botrytised wine. The strong increase of N-(3-methylbutyl)acetamide was related to B. cinerea grape infection. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fedrizzi B.,University of Padua | Versini G.,Unione Italiana Vini Soc. Coop. | Ferrarini R.,University of Verona | Finato F.,Unione Italiana Vini Soc. Coop. | And 2 more authors.
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2011

Grape products are really important in the cultural and dietary Italian traditions. Oenological products have been largely studied since the early '70s, even if the lack of biochemical and microbiological knowledge and poor sensitivity of the analytical techniques prevent from carrying on a deep studies on sulfur compounds. The topic discussed in the present work is the development of HS-SPME/GC-MS methods to quantify fermentative sulfur compounds (i.e. molecules produced both by yeast metabolisms from amino acidic precursors and via chemical reactions from other sulfur compounds) and the following application of these procedures on still wines, sparkling wines and distillates (e.g. Italian Grappa). 13 and 10 sulfur compounds were quantified in still and sparkling wines and Grappas, respectively. Influence of variety, aging, yeast strain and other technological practices on the level of these fermentative sulfur compounds was also investigated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Tosi E.,Centro per la Sperimentazione in Vitivinicoltura | Azzolini M.,Centro per la Sperimentazione in Vitivinicoltura | Lorenzini M.,University of Verona | Torriani S.,University of Verona | And 4 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2013

The influence of noble rot on the quality of Recioto di Soave, a "passito" sweet white wine, is greatly variable depending on the occurrence of favourable seasonal conditions for the mould infection. Botrytized wines were produced from grapes inoculated with conidia suspensions to evaluate the effects of noble rot on volatile compounds profile of Recioto di Soave wine. Different development stages of Botrytis cinerea and degree of grape withering were ascertained by must analysis. Several volatile components were involved in marked changes depending on the infection and grape withering level. Fruity esters, carbonyl compounds, phenols, lactones and acetamides greatly changed among botrytized wines. The results demonstrated that the level of B. cinerea infection and the degree of grape withering exert considerable influence on the volatile composition of this sweet wine. Strain-dependent effects were also preliminary ascertained. The process of induction of grape botrytization presented in this study could be recommendable for the industrial production of botrytized Recioto di Soave wine. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Fedrizzi B.,Unione Italiana Vini Soc. Coop. | Fedrizzi B.,University of Auckland | Nicolis E.,University of Verona | Camin F.,Research and Innovation Center | And 6 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2014

The high ethanol level in wine has become an important issue for all the main wine producing countries. Several techniques are available to the wine industry to reduce the ethanol content; among them, the membrane contactors are certainly one of the newest. Very few studies on the effect of this practice on the wine quality and aroma profile and on the stable isotopes composition are available. A pilot and industrial plant equipped with the membrane contactor system were used in the study in the dealcoholisation on several white and red wines. Significant changes for several classes of aroma compounds in both pilot- and industrial-scale experiments were observed, even though these changes were not always in perfect agreement with the sensory evaluation carried out. Finally, modifications on the δ18O of up to 1 ‰ for 2 % v/v and of up to 4 ‰ for 8 % v/v ethanol removal were encountered. An increase of δ13C of ethanol of up to 1.1 ‰ for 2 % and of up to 2.3 ‰ for 4 % of dealcoholisation rate was also observed. Dealcoholisation via membrane contactor seemed to affect the overall wine composition (aroma and flavour), even though the main concern resided on the alteration of the isotopic composition which could be linked to product authenticity issues. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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