Bennett L.L.,Union University at Jackson |
Rojas S.,Palm Beach Atlantic University |
Seefeldt T.,South Dakota State University
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine | Year: 2012
This review study evaluated the literature on the role of oxidative stress in malignant disorders and to search sources of promising antioxidants: pharmaceutical, dietary supplements, or investigational compounds. Oxidative stress plays important role in the pathogenesis of many cancers. Although a chemoprevention approach, which is a relatively new and promising strategy to prevent cancer using natural dietary compounds and synthetic substances, showed promising results in in vitro and animal studies, many showed mixed results after clinical trials. In several clinical trials, selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoids were shown to have no protective role as chemopreventive agents. Although flavonoids and resveratrol supplementation, along with a well-balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables containing antioxidants, were shown to lower the incidence of prostate, breast, renal, and other cancers in in vitro and small trials, further research through larger clinical trials is needed to determine the optimal dosage and formulation that elicit antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects. A preliminary literature search of PubMed was performed using the terms antioxidants, oxidative stress, cancer, malignant disorders, and chemoprevention. Bibliographies of all articles retrieved were reviewed. © 2012.
Poore G.M.,Union University at Jackson
Computational Science and Discovery | Year: 2015
PythonTeX is a LaTeX package that allows Python code in LaTeX documents to be executed and provides access to the output. This makes possible reproducible documents that combine results with the code required to generate them. Calculations and figures may be next to the code that created them. Since code is adjacent to its output in the document, editing may be more efficient. Since code output may be accessed programmatically in the document, copy-and-paste errors are avoided and output is always guaranteed to be in sync with the code that generated it. This paper provides an introduction to PythonTeX and an overview of major features, including performance optimizations, debugging tools, and dependency tracking. Several complete examples are presented. Finally, advanced features are summarized. Though PythonTeX was designed for Python, it may be extended to support additional languages; support for the Ruby and Julia languages is already included. PythonTeX contains a utility for converting documents into plain LaTeX, suitable for format conversion, sharing, and journal submission. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Martin A.C.,Union University at Jackson
Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2011
The prevalence of osteoporosis is estimated to be 18% in men, but 30% of all fractures occur in men. With age, men experience a gradual decline in testosterone production and bone density. The rate of trabecular bone loss in the lumbar spine in men over age 50 can be double the rate of loss in men under age 50. Endogenous testosterone, estradiol, and their metabolites play a role in maintaining bone health, but their specific effects on bone turnover have been difficult to elucidate. Recently, large cohort studies have provided more detailed information confirming estrogen's associations and further characterizing the effect of endogenous testosterone and its metabolites on bone mineral density and fractures. Very few clinical trials have assessed the impact of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on bone density and fractures in men. The few studies that have been conducted are generally small and not robust enough to show the true treatment effect of TRT and adequately determine its safety. In the absence of data on patient outcomes, it is important for pharmacists to understand the impact of drug therapy on biomarkers and surrogate markers of disease for optimal pharmacotherapy selection and monitoring. © The Author(s) 2011.
Kreissl S.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
Pingen G.,Union University at Jackson |
Maute K.,University of Colorado at Boulder
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2011
A computational methodology for optimizing the conceptual layout of unsteady flow problems at low Reynolds numbers is presented. The geometry of the design is described by the spatial distribution of a fictitious material with continuously varying porosity. The flow is predicted by a stabilized finite element formulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A Brinkman penalization is used to enforce zero-velocities in solid material. The resulting parameter optimization problem is solved by a non-linear programming method. The paper studies the feasibility of the material interpolation approach for optimizing the topology of unsteady flow problems. The derivation of the governing equations and the adjoint sensitivity analysis are presented. A design-dependent stabilization scheme is introduced to mitigate numerical instabilities in porous material. The emergence of non-physical artifacts in the optimized material distribution is observed and linked to an insufficient resolution of the flow field and an improper representation of the pressure field within solid material by the Brinkman penalization. Two numerical examples demonstrate that the designs optimized for unsteady flow differ significantly from their steady-state counterparts. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ubale R.V.,Union University at Jackson |
Gala R.P.,Mercer University |
Zughaier S.M.,Emory University |
D'Souza M.J.,Mercer University
AAPS Journal | Year: 2014
Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis, and its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are a major virulence factor in meningococcal infections and form the basis for serogroup designation and protective vaccines. We formulated a novel nanovaccine containing meningococcal CPS as an antigen encapsulated in albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs) that does not require chemical conjugation to a protein carrier. These nanoparticles are taken up by antigen-presenting cells and act as antigen depot by slowly releasing the antigen. In this study, we determined the ability of CPS-loaded vaccine nanoparticles to induce co-stimulatory molecules, namely CD80, CD86, and CD95 that impact effective antigen presentation. Co-stimulatory molecule gene induction and surface expression on macrophages and dendritic cells pulsed with meningococcal CPS-loaded nanoparticles were investigated using gene array and flow cytometry methods. Meningococcal CPS-loaded NP significantly induced the surface protein expression of CD80 and CD86, markers of dendritic cell maturation, in human THP-1 macrophages and in murine dendritic cells DC2.4 in a dose-dependent manner. The massive upregulation was also observed at the gene expression. However, high dose of CPS-loaded NP, but not empty NP, induced the expression of death receptor CD95 (Fas) leading to reduced TNF-α release and reduction in cell viability. The data suggest that high expression of CD95 may lead to death of antigen-presenting cells and consequently suboptimal immune responses to vaccine. The CPS-loaded NP induces the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and acts as antigen depot and can spare antigen dose, highly desirable criteria for vaccine formulations. © 2014 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.