Union University at Jackson

Jackson, TN, United States

Union University at Jackson

Jackson, TN, United States

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Guilaran I.J.,Union University at Jackson
Physics Teacher | Year: 2012

When I was an undergraduate physics major, I would often stay up late with my physics major roommate as we would digest the physics content we were learning in our courses and explore our respective imaginations armed with our new knowledge. Such activity during my undergraduate years was confined to informal settings, and the first formal creativity assignment in my physics education did not come until well into my graduate years when my graduate advisor demanded that I write a prospectus for my dissertation. I have often lamented the fact that the first formal assignment in which I was required to be creative, take responsibility for my own learning and research objectives, and see them to completion during my physics education came so late, considering the degree to which creative attributes are celebrated in the personalities of great physicists. In this essay I will apply some of the basic concepts as defined by creativity-related psychology literature to physics pedagogy, relate these concepts to the exchanges in this journal concerning Michael Sobel's paper1 "Physics for the Non-Scientist: A Middle Way," and provide the framework for a low-overhead creativity assignment that can easily be implemented at all levels of physics education. © American Association of Physics Teachers.

Guthrie M.G.,Union University at Jackson | Daigle A.D.,Dartmouth College | Salazar M.R.,Union University at Jackson
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2010

The properties of a new method of performing molecular dynamic simulations of complex chemical processes are presented. The method is formulated to give a time-dependent, multilevel representation of the total potential that is derived from spatially resolved quantum mechanical regions. An illustrative simulation is performed on a 110 atom system to demonstrate the continuity and energy conserving properties of the method. The effect of a discontinuous total potential upon the kinetic energy of the system is examined. The discontinuities in the magnitude of atomic force vectors due to changing the electronic structure during the simulation are examined as well as the effect that these discontinuities have upon the atomic kinetic energies. The method, while not conserving total energy, does yield canonical (NVT) simulations. The time reversibility property of the simulation with an extremely discontinuous total potential is discussed. The computational scaling associated with the formation of the spatially resolved, time-dependent groups is also investigated. Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Bennett L.L.,Union University at Jackson | Ingason A.,Union University at Jackson
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2014

Objective: To review the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the clinical efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of enzalutamide for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Data Sources: A literature search through PubMed (1984 to November 2013; English language) was performed using the following keywords: MDV3100, androgen deprivation therapy, enzalutamide, CRPC, and androgen receptor antagonist. Searches were limited to published studies in humans. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All articles in English identified from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical trials of enzalutamide in humans were selected and included. Data Synthesis: Enzalutamide is an oral, nonsteroidal second-generation androgen receptor antagonist that is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of metastatic CRPC in men who were previously treated with docetaxel. Enzalutamide was superior to placebo for increasing median survival from 13.6 months to 18.4 months. Enzalutamide was well tolerated at a dose of 160 mg, with minor adverse events such as fatigue, diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, and hot flashes. Patients with increased risk of seizure should not take enzalutamide. Conclusions: Enzalutamide is effective to slow progression of metastatic CRPC, to reduce prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, to decrease time to progression of PSA, to increase time to first skeletal-related events, and to increase quality of response rate. Enzalutamide was given at 160 mg/d for a median of 8 cycles of administration. Clinical trials are currently being conducted to observe if enzalutamide will be useful for treatment of other cancers and for early administration in prostate cancer. © The Author(s) 2014.

Bennett L.L.,Union University at Jackson | Rojas S.,Palm Beach Atlantic University | Seefeldt T.,South Dakota State University
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine | Year: 2012

This review study evaluated the literature on the role of oxidative stress in malignant disorders and to search sources of promising antioxidants: pharmaceutical, dietary supplements, or investigational compounds. Oxidative stress plays important role in the pathogenesis of many cancers. Although a chemoprevention approach, which is a relatively new and promising strategy to prevent cancer using natural dietary compounds and synthetic substances, showed promising results in in vitro and animal studies, many showed mixed results after clinical trials. In several clinical trials, selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoids were shown to have no protective role as chemopreventive agents. Although flavonoids and resveratrol supplementation, along with a well-balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables containing antioxidants, were shown to lower the incidence of prostate, breast, renal, and other cancers in in vitro and small trials, further research through larger clinical trials is needed to determine the optimal dosage and formulation that elicit antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects. A preliminary literature search of PubMed was performed using the terms antioxidants, oxidative stress, cancer, malignant disorders, and chemoprevention. Bibliographies of all articles retrieved were reviewed. © 2012.

Ubale R.V.,Union University at Jackson | Gala R.P.,Mercer University | Zughaier S.M.,Emory University | D'Souza M.J.,Mercer University
AAPS Journal | Year: 2014

Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis, and its capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are a major virulence factor in meningococcal infections and form the basis for serogroup designation and protective vaccines. We formulated a novel nanovaccine containing meningococcal CPS as an antigen encapsulated in albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs) that does not require chemical conjugation to a protein carrier. These nanoparticles are taken up by antigen-presenting cells and act as antigen depot by slowly releasing the antigen. In this study, we determined the ability of CPS-loaded vaccine nanoparticles to induce co-stimulatory molecules, namely CD80, CD86, and CD95 that impact effective antigen presentation. Co-stimulatory molecule gene induction and surface expression on macrophages and dendritic cells pulsed with meningococcal CPS-loaded nanoparticles were investigated using gene array and flow cytometry methods. Meningococcal CPS-loaded NP significantly induced the surface protein expression of CD80 and CD86, markers of dendritic cell maturation, in human THP-1 macrophages and in murine dendritic cells DC2.4 in a dose-dependent manner. The massive upregulation was also observed at the gene expression. However, high dose of CPS-loaded NP, but not empty NP, induced the expression of death receptor CD95 (Fas) leading to reduced TNF-α release and reduction in cell viability. The data suggest that high expression of CD95 may lead to death of antigen-presenting cells and consequently suboptimal immune responses to vaccine. The CPS-loaded NP induces the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and acts as antigen depot and can spare antigen dose, highly desirable criteria for vaccine formulations. © 2014 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Poore G.M.,Union University at Jackson
Computational Science and Discovery | Year: 2015

PythonTeX is a LaTeX package that allows Python code in LaTeX documents to be executed and provides access to the output. This makes possible reproducible documents that combine results with the code required to generate them. Calculations and figures may be next to the code that created them. Since code is adjacent to its output in the document, editing may be more efficient. Since code output may be accessed programmatically in the document, copy-and-paste errors are avoided and output is always guaranteed to be in sync with the code that generated it. This paper provides an introduction to PythonTeX and an overview of major features, including performance optimizations, debugging tools, and dependency tracking. Several complete examples are presented. Finally, advanced features are summarized. Though PythonTeX was designed for Python, it may be extended to support additional languages; support for the Ruby and Julia languages is already included. PythonTeX contains a utility for converting documents into plain LaTeX, suitable for format conversion, sharing, and journal submission. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Kreissl S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Pingen G.,Union University at Jackson | Maute K.,University of Colorado at Boulder
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2011

A computational methodology for optimizing the conceptual layout of unsteady flow problems at low Reynolds numbers is presented. The geometry of the design is described by the spatial distribution of a fictitious material with continuously varying porosity. The flow is predicted by a stabilized finite element formulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A Brinkman penalization is used to enforce zero-velocities in solid material. The resulting parameter optimization problem is solved by a non-linear programming method. The paper studies the feasibility of the material interpolation approach for optimizing the topology of unsteady flow problems. The derivation of the governing equations and the adjoint sensitivity analysis are presented. A design-dependent stabilization scheme is introduced to mitigate numerical instabilities in porous material. The emergence of non-physical artifacts in the optimized material distribution is observed and linked to an insufficient resolution of the flow field and an improper representation of the pressure field within solid material by the Brinkman penalization. Two numerical examples demonstrate that the designs optimized for unsteady flow differ significantly from their steady-state counterparts. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bennett L.L.,Union University at Jackson | Mohan D.,Union University at Jackson
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

Objective: To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatments of Gaucher disease (GD), focusing on the role of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), andsubstrate reduction therapy (SRT). Data Sources: A literature search through PubMed (1984-May 2013) of English language articles was performed with terms: Gaucher's disease, lysosomal storage disease. Secondary and tertiary references were obtained by reviewing related articles. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All articles in English identified from the data sources, clinical studies using ERT, SRT and articles containing other interesting aspects were included. Data Synthesis: GD is the most common inherited LSD, characterized by a deficiency in the activity of the enzyme acid β-glucosidase, which leads to accumulation of glucocerebroside within lysosomes of macrophages, leading to hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow suppression, and bone lesions. GD is classified into 3 types: type 1 GD (GD1) is chronic and non-neuronopathic, accounting for 95% of GDs, and types 2 and 3 (GD2, GD3) cause nerve cell destruction. Regular monitoring of enzyme chitotriosidase and pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokines are useful to confirm the diagnosis and effectiveness of GD treatment. Conclusions: There are 4 treatments available for GD1: 3 ERTs and 1 SRT. Miglustat, an SRT, is approved for mild to moderate GD1. ERTs are available for moderate to severe GD1 and can improve quality of life within the first year of treatment. The newest ERT, taliglucerase alfa, is plant-cell derived that can be produced on a large scale at lower cost. Eliglustat tartrate, another SRT, is under phase 3 clinical trials. No drugs have been approved for GD2 or GD3. © The Author(s) 2013.

Makhija D.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Pingen G.,Union University at Jackson | Maute K.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper presents a stabilized finite element formulation of the hydrodynamic Boltzmann transport equation (HBTE) to predict nearly incompressible fluid flow. The HBTE is discretized with Hermite polynomials in the velocity variable, and a streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin formulation is used to discretize the spatial variable. A nonlinear stabilization scheme is presented, from which a simple linear stabilization scheme is constructed. In contrast to the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, the HBTE is a first order equation and allows for conveniently enforcing Dirichlet conditions along immersed boundaries. A simple and efficient formulation for enforcing Dirichlet boundary conditions is presented and its accuracy is studied for immersed boundaries captured by the extended finite element method (XFEM). Numerical experiments indicate that both the linear and non-linear stabilization methods are sufficiently accurate and stable, but the linear formulation reduces the computational cost significantly. The accuracy of enforcing boundary conditions is satisfactory and shows second order convergence as the mesh is refined. Augmenting the boundary condition formulation with a penalty term increases the accuracy of enforcing the boundary condition constraints, but may degrade the accuracy of the global solution. Comparisons with results of a single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method show that the proposed finite element method features greater robustness and lesser dependence of the computational costs on the level of mesh refinement. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Martin A.C.,Union University at Jackson
Journal of Pharmacy Practice | Year: 2011

The prevalence of osteoporosis is estimated to be 18% in men, but 30% of all fractures occur in men. With age, men experience a gradual decline in testosterone production and bone density. The rate of trabecular bone loss in the lumbar spine in men over age 50 can be double the rate of loss in men under age 50. Endogenous testosterone, estradiol, and their metabolites play a role in maintaining bone health, but their specific effects on bone turnover have been difficult to elucidate. Recently, large cohort studies have provided more detailed information confirming estrogen's associations and further characterizing the effect of endogenous testosterone and its metabolites on bone mineral density and fractures. Very few clinical trials have assessed the impact of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on bone density and fractures in men. The few studies that have been conducted are generally small and not robust enough to show the true treatment effect of TRT and adequately determine its safety. In the absence of data on patient outcomes, it is important for pharmacists to understand the impact of drug therapy on biomarkers and surrogate markers of disease for optimal pharmacotherapy selection and monitoring. © The Author(s) 2011.

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