Coniglio L.,CNRS Reactions and Process Engineering Laboratory |
Coutinho J.A.P.,University of Aveiro |
Clavier J.-Y.,British Petroleum |
Jolibert F.,Union Nationale Des Groupements Of Distillateurs Dalcool |
And 6 more authors.
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2014
The challenges in reducing the world's dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving engine performance through better fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust emissions, have led to the emergence of new fuels, with formulations blending petrodiesel, biodiesel, bioethanol and water in various proportions. In parallel, the sustainability of the new biofuel industries also requires to maintain a high level of biodiversity while playing on techno-diversity, using a variety of resources that do not compete with edible crops (nor by using arable land for energy crops or food crops for energy production) and flexible conversion technologies satisfying the eco-design, eco-energy and eco-materials criteria. In addition, it would be relevant to consider blending ethyl biodiesel, instead of methyl biodiesel, with petrodiesel, particularly if the fuel formulation is completed with bioethanol (or even water). The supercritical ethanolysis of lipid resources to produce ethyl biodiesel is a simple but efficient route that should have the potential to satisfy the sustainability criteria if analyzed holistically. Therefore, this review focuses specifically on the production of ethyl biodiesel via triglyceride supercritical ethanolysis within a global analysis "feedstocks-conversion-engine". The scientific and technical bottlenecks requiring further development are highlighted by emphasizing (i) the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects (experiments and modeling) required for the process simulation, the results of which aim at securing the life cycle assessment, first at the process level and then at the fuel level; (ii) the proposals to improve the supercritical process performance in terms of eco-material and eco-energy; (iii) the impacts of ethyl vs. methyl biodiesel fuels and of biodiesel-ethanol-petrodiesel blends (with or without water) on the diesel engine emissions and performance; (iv) the technological flexibility of the supercritical process allowing its conversion toward production of other key products. Finally, built on the state-of-the art review, a new R&D direction combining supercritical ethanolysis of lipids with the addition of CO2, glycerol recovery, and cogeneration, according to the biorefinery concept, is proposed and discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rondeau P.,University of Lorraine |
Rondeau P.,Union Nationale Des Groupements Of Distillateurs Dalcool |
Gambier F.,University of Lorraine |
Gambier F.,Union Nationale Des Groupements Of Distillateurs Dalcool |
And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013
Compositions of 8 pomace samples originating from red and white winemaking from different areas of production of French vineyard were characterized (Alsace, Bordeaux, Bourgogne, Champagne, Languedoc, Val de Loire and Provence). Large variabilities were observed depending on cultivar and grape varieties: pomace samples contained 3-6% w/w of oil and 20-46% w/w of sugars, mainly glucans and xyloglucans with a relatively low pectinaceous polysaccharides content. Condensed tannins accounted for 20-51% w/w and can be extracted in an aqueous medium. The reactivity of some of these extracts toward formaldehyde (through gel time analysis) demonstrated their promising properties for adhesive applications. The results obtained in the present study confirm that grape pomace constitutes a promising source for a valuable utilization of this by-product. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.