Thomas M.,CANMET Energy |
Hayden A.C.S.,CANMET Energy |
Ghiricociu O.,Union Gas Ltd. |
Cane R.L.D.,Caneta Research |
Gagnon R.,Caneta Research
In 2007/2008 the Renewables and Integrated Energy Systems Group at Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), a department of the Canadian Federal Government, initiated a new study of residential hot-water use with the aim of determining whether or not there had been any significant change since the last study conducted. The NRCan study utilized low-cost data loggers together with accurate flowmeters to monitor the volume of hot water drawn every two to four seconds, for a period of approximately two to three weeks, at each test site. This study monitored 38 households in the greater Ottawa area and, as such, is believed to be the largest such study of its kind conducted since the earlier work completed by Perlman and Mills (1985) or Werden and Spielvogel (1969a, 1969b). NRCan has now extended the hot-water use monitoring to other regions in Ontario, in collaboration with Union Gas, Ltd., and with the assistance of Caneta Research, Inc., adding another 36 households to the study. The new regions covered included Hamilton, London, and Sudbury. As a result of our new study, we have found that people's habits have changed and that hot-water use today is quite different to the assumptions used in the current performance test standards; for example, the total household average daily hot-water volume appears to have decreased, the average draw volume flow rates are lower, and the average number of draws per day are much greater. The authors present the results of monitoring 74 households' hot-water use and discuss the implications of these results with respect to the water heater performance test standards and the derived energy factor. © 2011 ASHRAE. Source
Segall S.M.,Corrosion Service Company Ltd |
Gummow R.A.,Corrosion Service Company Ltd |
Fingas D.,Corrosion Service Company Ltd |
Shore J.,Union Gas Ltd.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series
An effective In-line Inspection (ILI) program must provide a prioritized excavation response plan to address anomalies identified as being of particular concern. Locations that show potential for imminent or short term failure are prioritized under Phase 1 and Phase 2 responses respectively. Anomalies that could grow to become a severe risk for pipeline integrity prior to the next ILI are prioritized as Phase 3 excavations. This paper describes the use of External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) principles in prioritizing Phase 3 anomalies on a gas pipeline in northern Ontario, resulting in a more effective excavation program. A type of ECDA prioritization criterion, based on the results of an integrated Close Interval Potential Survey/Direct Current Voltage Gradient (CIPS/DCVG) survey in conjunction with the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 digs, is proposed. ©2012 by NACE International. Source
Majeski A.,CANMET Energy |
Runstedtler A.,CANMET Energy |
D'Alessio J.,U.S. Steel Canada Inc. |
Macfadyen N.,Union Gas Ltd.
Injecting pulverized coal and natural gas into blast furnaces for ironmaking decreases metallurgical coke requirements, providing a net decrease in the CO2 emissions and in many cases, operating costs associated with iron production. Ideally, the fuel would enter the raceway partially reacted and the injection would not have negative impacts on the equipment or process. Success in achieving this outcome is sensitive to the details of how the injection is implemented. Given this sensitivity and that it is difficult to make accurate, detailed observations in blast furnaces or devise representative pilot-scale experiments, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become a useful and complementary tool for the analysis and design of fuel injection methodologies. This study uses CFD to examine the interaction of the blast air and fuel flows in the blowpipe and tuyere nozzle for different fuel injection strategies. Important operating issues such as initiation of partial combustion and heat loads on the tuyere nozzle are examined. It was found that two key fuel injection strategies developed separately for coal and natural gas can be combined effectively in a single combined fuel lance that leverages a bluff body effect to help coal dispersion and has radial nozzles to improve natural gas combustion. The bluff body effect is a simple process whereby the interaction between the blast air flow and a thick-walled lance creates a wake that can impart coal dispersion without the complexity or costs of adding an auxiliary dispersive fluid, such as an annular swirling flow of air. The performance of this combined fuel lance is compared against two configurations for separate fuel lances. Copyright © 2015. ISIJ. Source
Segall S.M.,Corrosion Service Co. |
Gummow R.A.,Corrosion Service Co. |
Shore J.,Union Gas Ltd.
The interpretation of indirect inspection data is a critical factor in conducting a successful external corrosion direct assessment process. The data must be validated, discrepancies resolved, and indications identified, classified, and prioritized to select the sites for direct examinations. This article analyzes the various types of data provided by indirect inspection tools and their interrelation. Source
natural gas compressors for use in gas stations. cooperative advertising and marketing and conducting marketing studies; operation of a fleet vehicle business for others. fleet support services, namely financial management. operating natural gas service stations for vehicles; and construction of natural gas refueling stations; vehicle repair and maintenance services related to natural gas vehicle conversion and natural gas refueling station services. educational services, namely conducting classes and seminars in the field of how to use natural gas in vehicles. consulting in the field of how to use natural gas vehicles, turnkey station engineering, namely station design, station engineering and procurement.