Union College at Lincoln

Lincoln, NE, United States

Union College at Lincoln

Lincoln, NE, United States
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Mankin R.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rohde B.,University of Florida | McNeill S.,Union College at Lincoln
Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics | Year: 2015

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is the primary vector of a bacterium that causes huanglongbing, a devastating disease of citrus in Florida. Efficient trapping of ACP at low population densities is important for timely pest management decisions. To improve trapping efficiency, there has been interest in coopting the vibrational communication/mating system of this insect. ACP males find mates on tree branches by producing vibrational calls that elicit duetting replies from receptive females. The males then search and continue duetting to locate the replies. To interfere with the duetting process, a device was constructed that incorporates a contact microphone to detect vibrational signals, a microcontroller platform with signal detection and background noise discrimination software, and a piezoelectric buzzer to produce mimics of female reply vibrations. The mimics, produced immediately after a call is detected, stimulate the male to search and find the source of the reply. This report describes the components and operation of the platform and its use in development of methods to interfere with the duetting process and disrupt mating. The objective of these studies is to develop fieldworthy systems that target ACP infestations and reduce their populations. © 2016 Acoustical Society of America.


Sattarzadeh A.,Cornell University | Fuller J.,Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research | Moguel S.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Moguel S.,Union College at Lincoln | And 8 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2010

Summary Plastid number and morphology vary dramatically between cell types and at different developmental stages. Furthermore, in C4 plants such as maize, chloroplast ultrastructure and biochemical functions are specialized in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, which differentiate acropetally from the proplastid form in the leaf base. To develop visible markers for maize plastids, we have created a series of stable transgenics expressing fluorescent proteins fused to either the maize ubiquitin promoter, the mesophyll-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PepC) promoter, or the bundle sheath-specific Rubisco small subunit 1 (RbcS) promoter. Multiple independent events were examined and revealed that maize codon-optimized versions of YFP and GFP were particularly well expressed, and that expression was stably inherited. Plants carrying PepC promoter constructs exhibit YFP expression in mesophyll plastids and the RbcS promoter mediated expression in bundle sheath plastids. The PepC and RbcS promoter fusions also proved useful for identifying plastids in organs such as epidermis, silks, roots and trichomes. These tools will inform future plastid-related studies of wild-type and mutant maize plants and provide material from which different plastid types may be isolated. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


McNeill C.A.,Union College at Lincoln | Pereira R.M.,University of Florida | Koehler P.G.,University of Florida | McNeill S.A.,Union College at Lincoln | Baldwin R.W.,University of Florida
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2016

Behavioral bioassays were conducted to determine whether bed bug adults and nymphs prefer specific colored harborages. Two-choice and seven-choice behavioral color assays indicate that red (28.5%) and black (23.4%) harborages are optimal harborage choices for bed bugs. Yellow and green harborages appear to repel bed bugs. Harborage color preferences change according to gender, nutritional status, aggregation, and life stage. Female bed bugs prefer harborages with shorter wavelengths (lilac - 14.5% and violet - 11.5%) compared to males, whereas males prefer harborages with longer wavelengths (red - 37.5% and black - 32%) compared with females. The preference for orange and violet harborages is stronger when bed bugs are fed as opposed to when they are starved. Lone bed bugs (30%) prefer to be in black harborages while red harborages appear to be the optimum harborage color for bed bugs in more natural mixed aggregations (35.5%). Bed bug nymphs preferred different colored harborages at each stage of development, which is indicative of their developing eye structures and pigments. First instars showed no significant preference for any colored harborage soon after hatching. However, by the fifth instar, 27.5% of nymphs significantly preferred red and black harborages (which was a similar preference to adult bed bugs). The proportion of oviposited eggs was significantly greater under blue, red, and black harborages compared to other colored harborages tested. The use of visual cues such as specific colors offers great potential for improving bed bug monitoring tools by increasing trap captures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.


Dietze T.R.,Union College at Lincoln | Rose F.F.,Union College at Lincoln | Moore T.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Journal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: Complications of prematurity may be related to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in preterm infants. Increased intrauterine exposure to cortisol may be responsible for adverse prenatal programming and subsequent dysfunction of the infant's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of the study was to describe maternal social variables and their association with infant cortisol levels and complications of prematurity. METHODS: Preterm infants<32 weeks' gestation were recruited. Primary outcomes were development of complications of prematurity and physiologic stress response, represented by cord blood and salivary cortisol levels on first day of life. Descriptive statistics and comparative analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen of 31 infants enrolled developed a complication of prematurity. Infants of greater gestational age when prenatal care was established had lower cord blood cortisol (p=0.009) and trended a higher risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (p=0.069). Infants whose mothers smoked more showed significantly different salivary cortisol distributions on day 1 (p=0.037), and were at greater risk for intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The association between maternal social variables, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, and complications of prematurity supports the research model of physiologic dysregulation/allostatic load as a mechanism for complications in preterm infants. More research is warranted to investigate associations between maternal social variables, maternal stress levels, and adverse prenatal programming of the infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. © 2016 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Thornton B.J.,Union College at Lincoln | Elthon T.E.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Cerny R.L.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Siegfried B.D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide that has been reported to induce the activity of certain detoxification enzymes and to affect insecticide toxicity in organisms experiencing simultaneous exposure to both atrazine and insecticides. In this study, the effects of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) exposure on protein expression in male and female Drosophila melanogaster adults in both microsomal and cytosolic cell fractions was investigated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins (vs. controls) were identified using matrix assisted laser desorption-time (MALDI-TOF) of flight mass spectrometry (MS). We identified a total of 28 proteins associated with energy production including glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration as differentially expressed and nine proteins associated with detoxification and response to oxidative stress. Most of these proteins were expressed in one sex or the other but not in both. Surprisingly, the only proteins associated with detoxification were identified as glutathione transferases. No cytochrome P450s were identified which have previously been shown to be responsive to atrazine exposure in D. melanogaster and proposed to be associated with insecticide/atrazine interactions. Results of this investigation support the role of atrazine in affecting mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative stress. However, the role of atrazine in pesticide interactions remains uncertain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Union College at Lincoln, Marienhospital Bottrop gGmbH and Nebraska Hematology Oncology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anticancer research | Year: 2016

Clinical response evaluation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer could include various imaging methods, as well as clinical breast exam (CBE). We assessed the accuracy of CBE and imaging to predict pathologic response after NACT administration according to breast cancer subtype.This retrospective cohort study included 84 patients with records of NACT and subsequent primary breast surgery from 2003-2013. Patients were divided into 4 breast cancer subtypes according to hormone receptor (HR) status and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status. Negative predictive value (NPV), false-negative rate (FNR), false-positive rate (FPR) and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated for CBE and imaging post-NACT and prior to breast cancer surgery.NPV, FNR, FPR and PPV varied by breast cancer subtype and clinical response evaluation method. Imaging resulted in a higher NPV and a lower FNR than CBE among the entire cohort. There was a lower FPR with CBE. Clinical response evaluation by CBE was highly accurate for predicting pathologic residual disease in HR+ tumors (CBE PPV: 95.5% in HR+HER2-, 100.0% in HR+HER2+). In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the imaging NPV was 100% and the imaging FNR was 0%.The use of imaging in HR+ tumors post-NACT may provide little to no additional value that is not already garnered by performance of a CBE. For TNBC, imaging may play a critical role in the prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR) post-NACT.


Mcneill C.A.,Union College at Lincoln | Allan S.A.,Biocontrol | Koehler P.G.,University of Florida | Pereira R.M.,University of Florida | Weeks E.N.I.,University of Florida
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2016

Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behaviour to improve management. While few studies have investigated the visual capabilities of bed bugs, the present study focused specifically on eye morphology and spectral sensitivity. A 3-D imaging technique was used to document bed bug eye morphology from the first instar through adult and revealed morphological characteristics that differentiate the common bed bug from the tropical bed bug as well as sex-specific differences. Electrophysiological measurements were used to evaluate the spectral sensitivity of adult bed bugs. Male bed bugs were more responsive than females at some wavelengths. Electrophysiological studies provided evidence for at least one photoreceptor with a spectral sensitivity curve peak in the green (λmax 520nm) region of the spectrum. The broadened long wavelength portion of the spectral sensitivity curve may potentially indicate another photoreceptor in the yellow-green (λmax 550nm) portion of the spectrum or screening pigments. Understanding more about bed bug visual biology is vital for designing traps, which are an important component of integrated bed bug management. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.


PubMed | Union College at Lincoln and University of Nebraska Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neonatal-perinatal medicine | Year: 2016

Complications of prematurity may be related to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in preterm infants. Increased intrauterine exposure to cortisol may be responsible for adverse prenatal programming and subsequent dysfunction of the infants hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The aim of the study was to describe maternal social variables and their association with infant cortisol levels and complications of prematurity.Preterm infants<32 weeks gestation were recruited. Primary outcomes were development of complications of prematurity and physiologic stress response, represented by cord blood and salivary cortisol levels on first day of life. Descriptive statistics and comparative analyses were performed.Fifteen of 31 infants enrolled developed a complication of prematurity. Infants of greater gestational age when prenatal care was established had lower cord blood cortisol (p=0.009) and trended a higher risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (p=0.069). Infants whose mothers smoked more showed significantly different salivary cortisol distributions on day 1 (p=0.037), and were at greater risk for intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.018).The association between maternal social variables, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, and complications of prematurity supports the research model of physiologic dysregulation/allostatic load as a mechanism for complications in preterm infants. More research is warranted to investigate associations between maternal social variables, maternal stress levels, and adverse prenatal programming of the infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.


PubMed | Union College at Lincoln and University of Florida
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2016

Behavioral bioassays were conducted to determine whether bed bug adults and nymphs prefer specific colored harborages. Two-choice and seven-choice behavioral color assays indicate that red (28.5%) and black (23.4%) harborages are optimal harborage choices for bed bugs. Yellow and green harborages appear to repel bed bugs. Harborage color preferences change according to gender, nutritional status, aggregation, and life stage. Female bed bugs prefer harborages with shorter wavelengths (lilac-14.5% and violet-11.5%) compared to males, whereas males prefer harborages with longer wavelengths (red-37.5% and black-32%) compared with females. The preference for orange and violet harborages is stronger when bed bugs are fed as opposed to when they are starved. Lone bed bugs (30%) prefer to be in black harborages while red harborages appear to be the optimum harborage color for bed bugs in more natural mixed aggregations (35.5%). Bed bug nymphs preferred different colored harborages at each stage of development, which is indicative of their developing eye structures and pigments. First instars showed no significant preference for any colored harborage soon after hatching. However, by the fifth instar, 27.5% of nymphs significantly preferred red and black harborages (which was a similar preference to adult bed bugs). The proportion of oviposited eggs was significantly greater under blue, red, and black harborages compared to other colored harborages tested. The use of visual cues such as specific colors offers great potential for improving bed bug monitoring tools by increasing trap captures.


PubMed | Union College at Lincoln, University of Florida and Biocontrol
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical and veterinary entomology | Year: 2016

Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behaviour to improve management. While few studies have investigated the visual capabilities of bed bugs, the present study focused specifically on eye morphology and spectral sensitivity. A 3-D imaging technique was used to document bed bug eye morphology from the first instar through adult and revealed morphological characteristics that differentiate the common bed bug from the tropical bed bug as well as sex-specific differences. Electrophysiological measurements were used to evaluate the spectral sensitivity of adult bed bugs. Male bed bugs were more responsive than females at some wavelengths. Electrophysiological studies provided evidence for at least one photoreceptor with a spectral sensitivity curve peak in the green (

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