UNIM Project

Kisumu, Kenya

UNIM Project

Kisumu, Kenya
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Smith J.S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Backes D.M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Hudgens M.G.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Bailey R.C.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence was estimated from 2,705 sexually active, uncircumcised, human immunodeficiency virus seronegative men aged 17-28 years in Kisumu, Kenya. HPV prevalence was 51.1% (95% confidence interval: 49.2-53.0%) in penile cells from the glans/coronal sulcus and/or shaft. HPV prevalence varied by anatomical site, with 46.5% positivity in the glans/coronal sulcus compared with 19.1% in the shaft (p < 0.0001). High-risk HPV was detected in 31.2% of glans and 12.3% of shaft samples (p < 0.0001). HPV16 was the most common type and 29.2% of men were infected with more than one HPV type. Risk factors for HPV infection included presence of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhea, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, and less frequent bathing. Lifetime number of sexual partners and herpes simplex virus type-2 seropositivity were also marginally associated with HPV infection. © 2009 UICC.


Mehta S.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Gaydos C.,Johns Hopkins University | MacLean I.,University of Manitoba | Odoyo-June E.,UNIM Project | And 4 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: We determined the prevalence of urethral Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection and whether infection was associated with circumcision status among men enrolled in the randomized trial of medical male circumcision to prevent HIV acquisition in Kisumu, Kenya. Methods: MG and Trichomonas vaginalis were detected in first void urine by APTIMA transcription-mediated amplification assay. first void urine and urethral swabs were assessed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by polymerase chain reaction assay. Herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with MG infection. Results: Specimens were collected between July and September 2010, and 52 (9.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.3%-12.4%) MG infections were detected among 526 men. N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis were not associated with MG. CT coinfection was 5.8% in MG-infected men, and 0.8% among MG-uninfected men (P = 0.02). MG infection was predominantly asymptomatic (98%). The prevalence of MG was 13.4% in uncircumcised men versus 8.2% in circumcised men (P = 0.06). Being circumcised nearly halved the odds of MG (adjusted odds ratio [aQR] = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.29-0.99), adjusted for other variables significant at the P < 0.05 level: herpes simplex virus type 2 infection (aOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.05-4.00), CT infection (aOR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.44-5.02), and washing the penis ≤1 hour after sex (aOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.24-0.95). Conclusions: MG infection was reduced among men who were circumcised, adding to the benefits of male circumcision in preventing several sexually transmitted infections. © 2012 Public Health Agency of Canada and Government of Canada All rights reserved.


Westercamp N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Moses S.,University of Manitoba | Agot K.,UNIM Project | Ndinya-Achola J.O.,University of Nairobi | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Health Geographics | Year: 2010

Background: The well-established connection between HIV risk behavior and place of residence points to the importance of geographic clustering in the potential transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI).Methods: To investigate the geospatial distribution of prevalent sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviors in a sample of 18-24 year-old sexually active men in urban and rural areas of Kisumu, Kenya, we mapped the residences of 649 men and conducted spatial cluster analysis. Spatial distribution of the study participants was assessed in terms of the demographic, behavioral, and sexual dysfunction variables, as well as laboratory diagnosed STIs. To test for the presence and location of clusters we used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic as implemented in the Satscan program.Results: The results of this study suggest that sexual risk behaviors and STIs are evenly distributed in our sample throughout the Kisumu district. No behavioral or STI clusters were detected, except for condom use. Neither urban nor rural residence significantly impacted risk behavior or STI prevalence.Conclusion: We found no association between place of residence and sexual risk behaviors in our sample. While our results can not be generalized to other populations, the study shows that geospatial analysis can be an important tool for investigating study sample characteristics; for evaluating HIV/STI risk factors; and for development and implementation of targeted HIV and STI control programs in specifically defined populations and in areas where the underlying population dynamic is poorly understood. © 2010 Westercamp et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mehta S.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Krieger J.N.,University of Washington | Agot K.,UNIM Project | Moses S.,University of Manitoba | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2010

Purpose: Injuries to the penis during intercourse represent a hypothesized mechanism by which uncircumcised men are at increased risk for HIV. There are no published, systematically collected data regarding mild penile coital trauma to our knowledge. We identified risks of self-reported penile coital injuries in men 18 to 24 years old in a randomized trial of circumcision to prevent HIV in Kisumu, Kenya. Materials and Methods: Each participant underwent standardized interview, medical history and physical examination at baseline, and 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after enrollment. Self-reported penile coital injuries were assessed at each visit, and were defined as penis feels sore during sex, penis gets scratches, cuts or abrasions during sex, and skin of the penis bleeds after sex. Generalized estimating equation analysis estimated odds ratios for penile coital injuries. Results: From February 2002 to September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized. At baseline 1,775 (64.4%) men reported any coital injury including 1,313 (47.6%) soreness, 1,328 (48.2%) scratches, abrasions or cuts and 461 (16.7%) bleeding. On multivariable analysis coital injury risk was lower for circumcised than for uncircumcised men with soreness (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64-0.80), scratches/abrasions/cuts (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.46-0.59), bleeding (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75) and any coital injury (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.54-0.68). Other significant risks included increasing age, multiple recent sex partners, HSV-2 seropositivity and genital ulcers (p <0.05). Condom use, cleaning the penis soon after intercourse and being married/cohabiting were protective (p <0.05, each). Conclusions: Self-reported penile coital injuries were common in these healthy young men. Circumcised men were at lower risk for coital injuries. Verifying penile coital injuries, the mechanism of acquisition and the association with HIV risk is needed. © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.


Mattson C.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Campbell R.T.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Karabatsos G.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Agot K.,UNIM Project | And 3 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2010

We present a scale to measure sexual risk behavior or "sexual risk propensity" to evaluate risk compensation among men engaged in a randomized clinical trial of male circumcision. This statistical approach can be used to represent each respondent's level of sexual risk behavior as the sum of his responses on multiple dichotomous and rating scale (i.e. ordinal) items. This summary "score" can be used to summarize information on many sexual behaviors or to evaluate changes in sexual behavior with respect to an intervention. Our 18 item scale demonstrated very good reliability (Cronbach's alpha of 0.87) and produced a logical, unidimensional continuumto represent sexual risk behavior. We found no evidence of differential item function at different time points (except for reporting a concurrent partners when comparing 6 and 12 month follow-up visits) or with respect to the language with which the instrument was administered. Further, we established criterion validity by demonstrating a statistically significant association between the risk scale and the acquisition of incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at the 6 month follow-up and HIV at the 12 month follow-up visits. This method has broad applicability to evaluate sexual risk behavior in the context of other HIV and STI prevention interventions (e.g. microbicide or vaccine trials), or in response to treatment provision (e.g., anti-retroviral therapy). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008.


Westercamp N.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Mattson C.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Madonia M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Moses S.,University of Manitoba | And 5 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2010

To evaluate whether determinants of consistent condom use vary by partner type among young sexually active Kenyan men, we conducted a cross-sectional assessment of lifetime sexual histories from a sub-sample of men enrolled in a clinical trial of male circumcision. 7913 partnerships of 1370 men were analyzed. 262 men (19%) reported never, 1018 (74%) sometimes and 92 (7%) always using a condom with their partners. Condoms were always used in 2672 (34%) of the total relationships-212 (70%) of the relationships with sex workers, 1643 (40%) of the casual and 817 (23%) of the regular/marital relationships. Factors influencing condom use varied significantly by partner type, suggesting that HIV prevention messages promoting condom use with higher-risk partners have achieved a moderate level of acceptance. However, in populations of young, single men in generalized epidemic settings, interventions should promote consistent condom use in all sexual encounters, independently of partner type and characteristics. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Pultorak E.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Odoyo-June E.,UNIM Project | Hayombe J.,UNIM Project | Opiyo F.,UNIM Project | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2011

To identify factors associated with repeat visits among patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Kisumu, Kenya, we examined records of clinic visits from March 2009 to May 2010. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with repeat visits occurring >30 days after the initial visit. Among 1473 clients (1296 single-visit individuals versus 177 individuals with repeat visits), the median age was 24 years, 67% were men and 8.6% self-reported being HIV-positive. In adjusted analyses, men with repeat visits were more likely to report ≥2 recent sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1/4 1.60) and being HIV-positive (aOR 1/4 2.35). They were less likely to have been referred from other health facilities (aOR 1/4 0.14) and more likely to have urethral discharge at their initial visit (aOR 1/4 2.46). Among women, repeat visits were associated with vaginal discharge (aOR 1/4 2.22), but attending the clinic with a partner was protective (aOR 1/4 0.38). The association between sexual risk, HIV positivity and repeat visits among male clients highlights the need to focus intervention efforts on this group. For women, attending with a partner may reflect a decreased risk of re-infection if both partners are treated and counselled together.


Mehta S.D.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Moses S.,University of Manitoba | Parker C.B.,Rti International | Agot K.,UNIM Project | And 2 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2012

Objective: We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design: Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18-24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n = 1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods: Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results: HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio = 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23-0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio = 0.52; 95% CI 0.37-0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio = 0.94; 95% CI 0.70-1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio = 3.44; 95% CI 1.52-7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio = 6.98; 95% CI 3.50-13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion: Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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