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Skien, Norway

Strand L.,Unilabs Telelab | Jenkins A.,Unilabs Telelab | Grude N.,Unilabs Telelab | Allum A.-G.,Unilabs Telelab | And 4 more authors.
APMIS | Year: 2010

We describe a study of urinary tract and intestinal isolates of Escherichia coli from Norway and Russia using automated ribotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism analysis for clonal group A (CgA) supplemented with phylogrouping, virulence gene profiling and resistance profiling. CgA comprised 19% of the Norwegian UTI isolates from 2001. Two highly multiresistant fluoroquinolone- resistant CgA isolates were found. Ribotypes clustered into four major and six minor groups (ribogroups). Fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates and phylogroups A and B1 were associated with ribogroup RA. Ribogroup RB predominated among Russian UTI isolates and was predominantly phylogroup A and depleted in P-fimbriae. Ribogroup RC predominated among Norwegian UTI isolates and was rich in virulence factors (S-fimbriae, haemagglutinin and haemolysin) and predominantly phylogroup B2 and D. Ribogroup RG was associated with CgA and predominantly phylogroup D. Ribogroups RD, RE and RF had too few members for statistical analysis. The correlation between ribotype and phylogenetic group was not as strong as reported in other studies. © 2010 APMIS. Source


Jenkins A.,Unilabs Telelab | Jenkins A.,Telemark University College | Hvidsten D.,University of Tromso | Matussek A.,Clinical Microbiology Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2012

A consensus TaqMan real-time PCR test targeting the chromosomal flaB gene of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was constructed. The test was compared with a recently published generic Light Upon eXtension (LUX) 16S rRNA real-time PCR test (Wilhelmsson et al. in J Clin Microbiol 48:4169-4176, 2010) on material consisting of 242 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and cats in Northern Norway (n = 139) and Telemark County in Southern Norway (n = 103). Ticks positive in either test were further tested by nested PCR amplification of the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic-spacer region followed by sequencing for species identification. A tick was defined as Borrelia positive if two of three tests were positive. Thirty-four of the 242 (14 %) ticks satisfied this definition of positivity. Of these ticks 32 were positive both in the rRNA and flaB test, while two were positive only in the rRNA test. One tick was positive only in the rRNA test and was considered false positive since PCR for sequencing failed. The sensitivity of the flaB test was 94 % and the specificity 100 %. It was possible to determine the species present using Tm analysis. Among ticks from Northern Norway the prevalence of Borrelia was 13 %, whereas the prevalence in Telemark was 16 %. Among identified species (n = 33) B. afzelii was found in 16 (47 %), B. garinii in 15 (44 %) and B. valaisiana in 2 (6 %) ticks, respectively. The flaB test is a rapid, sensitive and specific test for detection and quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in I. ricinus ticks. This is the first report on Borrelia prevalence in I. ricinus in Northern Norway. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Strand L.,Unilabs Telelab | Strand L.,University of Tromso | Strand L.,Medical and Environmental Genetics Unit | Jenkins A.,Unilabs Telelab | And 7 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: The problem of emerging ciprofloxacin resistance is compounded by its frequent association with multiresistance, the reason for which is not fully understood. In this study we compare multiresistance, clonal similarities and phylogenetic group in urinary tract isolates of Escherichia coli sensitive and resistant to the quinolone antimicrobials nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Results: Quinolone resistant isolates were more resistant to non-quinolone antibiotics than sensitive isolates, with resistance to ampicillin, mecillinam, sulphonamide, trimethoprim, tetracycline, kanamycin and chloramphenicol significantly increased. Fifty-one percent of quinolone-resistant isolates were multiresistant. Although multiresistance was most prevalent (63%) in isolates showing high-level ciprofloxacin resistance, it was still highly prevalent (41%) in nalidixic acid resistant isolates with low-level ciprofloxacin resistance. Multiresistance was more frequent among singleton isolates (61%) than clonal isolates (40%) of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli. Ciprofloxacin resistance was associated with certain specific clones, among them the globally distributed clonal Group A. However, there was no significant difference in the overall degree of clonality between quinolone sensitive and resistant isolates. Ciprofloxacin resistance was positively associated with phylogroup D and negatively associated with phylogroup B2. This correlation was not associated with clonal isolates. Conclusion: This study supports earlier findings of association between ciprofloxacin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics. The prevalence of multiresistance in quinolone-resistant isolates that have not yet developed high-level ciprofloxacin resistance suggest that multiresistance arises early in the development of quinolone resistance. This is consistent with exposure to quinolones causing quinolone resistance by mutations and mobilization of multiresistance elements by induction of the SOS response. The spread of clones seems to be less important than previously reported in regard to emergence of quinolone resistance and multiresistance as both are associated primarily with singleton isolates. © 2014 Strand et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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