The Uniformed Services University of the Health science is a health science university run by the U.S. federal government. The primary mission of the school is to prepare graduates for service to the U.S. at home and abroad in the medical corps.The university consists of the F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, a medical school, which includes a full health science graduate education program, the Graduate School of Nursing, a nursing school, and a postgraduate dental college. The university's campus is located in Bethesda, Maryland. USU was established in 1972 under legislation sponsored by U.S. Representative Felix Edward Hébert of Louisiana. It graduated its first class in 1980.USU falls under the office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs. Formerly known by the acronym USUHS, it has officially adopted the abbreviated acronym USU. Wikipedia.
Gaidamakova E.K.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Cell host & microbe | Year: 2012
Although pathogen inactivation by γ-radiation is an attractive approach for whole-organism vaccine development, radiation doses required to ensure sterility also destroy immunogenic protein epitopes needed to mount protective immune responses. We demonstrate the use of a reconstituted manganous peptide complex from the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans to protect protein epitopes from radiation-induced damage and uncouple it from genome damage and organism killing. The Mn(2+) complex preserved antigenic structures in aqueous preparations of bacteriophage lambda, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and Staphylococcus aureus during supralethal irradiation (25-40 kGy). An irradiated vaccine elicited both antibody and Th17 responses, and induced B and T cell-dependent protection against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in mice. Structural integrity of viruses and bacteria are shown to be preserved at radiation doses far above those which abolish infectivity. This approach could expedite vaccine production for emerging and established pathogens for which no protective vaccines exist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horowitz D.S.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: RNA | Year: 2012
The molecular mechanisms of the second step of pre-mRNA splicing in yeast and higher eukaryotes are reviewed. The important elements in the pre-mRNA, the participating proteins, and the proposed secondary structures and roles of the snRNAs are described. The sequence of events in the second step is presented, focusing on the actions of the proteins in setting up and facilitating the second reaction. Mechanisms for avoiding errors in splicing are discussed. WIREs RNA 2012, 3:331-350. doi: 10.1002/wrna.112 For further resources related to this article, please visit the This article is a U.S. Government work, and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scott D.W.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Blood | Year: 2013
A major problem in treating hemophilia A patients with therapeutic factor VIII (FVIII) is that 20% to 30% of these patients produce neutralizing anti-FVIII antibodies. These antibodies block (inhibit) the procoagulant function of FVIII and thus are termed "inhibitors." The currently accepted clinical method to attempt to eliminate inhibitors is immune tolerance induction (ITI) via a protocol requiring intensive FVIII treatment until inhibitor titers drop. Although often successful, ITI is extremely costly and is less likely to succeed in patients with high-titer inhibitors. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in clarifying mechanisms of allo- and autoimmune responses to FVIII and in suppression of these responses. Animal model studies are suggesting novel, less costly methods to induce tolerance to FVIII. Complementary studies of anti-FVIII T-cell responses using blood samples from human donors are identifying immunodominant T-cell epitopes in FVIII and possible targets for tolerogenic efforts. Mechanistic experiments using human T-cell clones and lines are providing a clinically relevant counterpoint to the animal model studies. This review highlights recent progress toward the related goals of lowering the incidence of anti-FVIII immune responses and promoting durable, functional immune tolerance to FVIII in patients with an existing inhibitor.
Halstead S.B.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015
After an absence of ≈200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global pandemics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, and in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean and spread to North and South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by an evil spirit; in Cuba, it was known as dengue, a Spanish homonym of denga. During the eighteenth century, dengue (present-day chikungunya) was distinguished from breakbone fever (present-day dengue), another febrile exanthem. In the twentieth century, experiments resulted in the recovery and naming of present-day dengue viruses. In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses. © 2014, Emerging Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.
Via C.S.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2010
The parent-into-F1 model has led to important advances in our understanding of lupus. Here, we review the work in murine lupus that elucidated the role of T cells and supported the conclusion that the parent-into-F1 model of induced lupus compares favorably with de facto gold standard spontaneous models of lupus. Then we focus on recent work in parent-into-F1 mice, which has yielded novel insights into unresolved controversies, such as the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of lupus and lupus in patients receiving TNF blockade. Finally, the review considers the evidence that supports a potential role for CD8 T cells, both cytotoxic and memory cells, in mediating disease remission.