Unidade de Producao Animal

IP, Portugal

Unidade de Producao Animal

IP, Portugal
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Costa A.S.H.,University of Lisbon | Costa P.,University of Lisbon | Bessa R.J.B.,University of Lisbon | Lemos J.P.C.,University of Lisbon | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013

This study assessed the effect of breed and diet on carcass composition, particularly fat partitioning, and meat quality in young bulls. An experiment with forty young bulls from two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, fed two diets with different maize silage to concentrate ratios, but isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, was carried out until the animals reached 18. months of age. In the longissimus lumborum muscle, Barrosã bulls fed the low silage diet had the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Bulls fed the low silage diet also had the highest IMF content in the semitendinosus muscle. Diet determined the proportions of total visceral fat and individual fat depots. Under these experimental conditions, it was shown that the genetic background is a major determinant of carcass composition and meat quality, and that the dietary differences studied had limited effect on carcass composition. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Martins S.V.,University of Lisbon | Lopes P.A.,University of Lisbon | Alves S.P.,Unidade de Producao Animal | Alves S.P.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2011

The fatty acid composition of phospholipids plays a key role in the structural and functional properties of cellular membrane. In this study, it was hypothesized that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer supplementation changes the unsaturation degree of the fatty acids of neutral lipids (NLs) but not those of polar lipids (PLs). Thus, the main goal was to determine the pattern of fatty acid incorporation into hepatic PL and NL fractions. Wistar male rats were fed cis(c)9,. trans(t)11 and t10,. c12 CLA isomers, separately or as a mixture. Whereas the t10,. c12 isomer incorporation in the PL fraction was similar when supplemented either individually or as a mixture, the c9,. t11 isomer reached the highest values of incorporation when combined with t10,. c12. In the PL fraction, the linoleic acid did not change; but the arachidonic acid decreased, especially in the rats given the mixture. Also in this fraction, the t10,. c12 isomer, either separately or as a mixture, decreased the amounts of n-6 long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and increased those of the n-3 LC PUFA relative to the control. In the NL fraction, linoleic acid incorporation followed the diet composition, whereas the arachidonic acid was similar among treatments. Facing CLA isomer supplementation, the present study suggests that fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids, through the balance between n-6 and n-3 LC PUFA, is dependent upon maintaining the unsaturation degree of cellular membrane. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Costa A.S.H.,University of Lisbon | Lopes P.A.,University of Lisbon | Estevao M.,University of Lisbon | Martins S.V.,University of Lisbon | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

During the finishing phase of bovines, large amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fats are deposited leading to production inefficiencies with major impact on meat quality. A better understanding of the cellularity features of the main fat depots could provide strategies for adipose tissue manipulation. This study assessed the effect of feeding diets with distinct forage to concentrate ratios on the cellularity of two fat depots of beef cattle and their implications on the fatty acid profile. Thus, two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected. The results did not show differences in subcutaneous fat deposition nor in visceral fat depots partitioning. Plasma adipokines concentration failed to show a consistent relationship with fatness, as leptin remained constant in all experimental groups, whereas interleukin-6 was influenced by breed. Fat depot seems to determine the area and number of adipocytes, with larger adipocytes and a lower number of cells in subcutaneous fat than in mesenteric fat. Neither breed nor diet influenced adipocytes area and number. The contents of total fatty acids, partial sums of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomeric profile were affected by breed and fat depot. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) was higher in mesenteric fat depot, whereas subcutaneous fat depot had greater percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In addition, SFA and MUFA proportions seem to be breed-related. In spite of the less relevant role of diet, the percentages of PUFA and BCFA were influenced by this factor. Under these experimental conditions, the effect of fat depot on cellularity and fatty acid composition prevails over breed or diet, as reinforced by the principal component analysis. © Ivyspring International Publisher.

Martins S.V.,University of Lisbon | Lopes P.A.,University of Lisbon | Alfaia C.M.,University of Lisbon | Rodrigues P.O.,New University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported as having body fat lowering properties and the ability to modulate the inflammatory system in several models. In the present study, the effects of CLA added to saturated fat diets, from vegetable and animal origins, on the serum adipokine profile of obese Zucker rats were assessed. In addition, the fatty acid composition of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues was determined and a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess possible relationships between fatty acids and serum metabolites. Atherogenic diets (2% cholesterol) were formulated with palm oil and ovine fat and supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-CLA isomers. CLA-fed animals exhibited lower daily feed intake, final body and liver weights, and hepatic lipids content. Total and LDL-cholesterol levels were increased in CLA-supplemented groups. CLA also promoted higher adiponectin and lower plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) serum concentrations. In contrast to palm oil diets, ovine fat increased insulin resistance and serum levels of leptin, TNF-α and IL-1β. Epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues had similar deposition of individual fatty acids. The PCA analysis showed that the trans-10, cis-12-CLA isomer was highly associated with adiponectin and PAI-1 levels. Summing up, CLA added to vegetable saturated enriched diets, relative to those from animal origin, seems to improve the serum profile of adipokines and inflammatory markers in obese Zucker rats due to a more favourable fatty acid composition. © 2009 The Authors.

Martins S.V.,University of Lisbon | Lopes P.A.,University of Lisbon | Alves S.P.,Unidade de Producao Animal | Alfaia C.M.,University of Lisbon | And 3 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2012

The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in combination with fat from vegetable versus animal origin on the fatty acid deposition, including that of individual 18:1 and 18:2 (conjugated and non-conjugated) isomers, in the liver and muscle of obese rats was investigated. For this purpose, 32 male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing palm oil or ovine fat, supplemented or not with 1% of 1:1 cis(c)9,trans(t)11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers mixture. Total fatty acid content decreased in the liver and muscle of CLA-fed rats. In the liver, CLA increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in 11.9% and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in 6.5%. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) relative proportions were increased in 30.6% by CLA when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. In the muscle, CLA did not affect SFA but decreased MUFA and PUFA percentages. The estimation of D9-indices 16 and 18 suggested that CLA inhibited the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in the liver (a decrease of 13-38%), in particular when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. Concerning CLA supplementation, the t10,c12 isomer percentage was 60-80% higher in the muscle than in the liver. It is of relevance that rats fed ovine fat, containing bio-formed CLA, had more c9,t11 CLA isomer deposited in both tissues than rats fed palm oil plus synthetic CLA. These results highlight the importance to further clarify the biological effects of consuming foods naturally enriched in CLA, alternatively to CLA dietary supplementation. © 2011 AOCS.

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