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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Cortes P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Blanc V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Mora A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Dahbi G.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 9 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

To ascertain whether on animal farms there reside extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic class C β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates potentially pathogenic for humans, phylogenetic analyses, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, serotyping, and virulence genotyplng were performed for 86 isolates from poultry (57 isolates) and pig (29 isolates) farms. E. coli isolates from poultry farms carried genes encoding enzymes of the CTX-M-9 group as well as CMY-2, whereas those from pig farms mainly carried genes encoding CTX-M-1 enzymes. Poultry and pig isolates differed significantly in their phylogenetic group assignments, with phylogroup A predominating in pig isolates and phylogroup D predominating in avian isolates. Among the 86 farm isolates, 23 (26.7%) carried two or more virulence genes typical of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Of these, 20 were isolated from poultry farms and only 3 from pig farms. Ten of the 23 isolates belonged to the classic human ExPEC serotypes O2:H6, O2:HNM, O2:H7, O15:H1, and O25:H4. Despite the high diversity of serotypes and pulsotypes detected among the 86 farm isolates, 13 PFGE clusters were identified. Four of these clusters contained isolates with two or more virulence genes, and two clusters exhibited the classic human ExPEC serotypes O2:HNM (ST10) and O2:H6 (ST115). Although O2:HNM and O2:H6 isolates of human and animal origins differed with respect to their virulence genes and PFGE pulsotypes, the O2:HNM isolates from pigs showed the same sequence type (ST10) as those from humans. The single avian O15:H1 isolate was compared with human clinical isolates of this serotype. Although all were found to belong to phylogroup D and shared the same virulence gene profile, they differed in their sequence types (ST362-avian and ST393-human) and PFGE pulsotypes. Noteworthy was the detection, for the first time, in poultry farms of the clonal groups O25b:H4-ST131-B2, producing CTX-M-9, and O25a-ST648-D, producing CTX-M-32. The virulence genes and PFGE profiles of these two groups were very similar to those of clinical human isolates. While further studies are required to determine the true zoonotic potential of these clonal groups, our results emphasize the zoonotic risk posed especially by poultry farms, but also by pig farms, as reservoirs of ESBL- and CMY-2-encoding E. coli. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Coelho A.,Servei de Microbiologia | Coelho A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Mora A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mamani R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the current prevalence of the clonal group O25b:H4-B2-ST131 among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) collected in the Hospital Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona (Spain) with regard to other clonal groups and to characterize their genetic background. Methods: Ninety-four consecutive non-duplicate ESBLEC isolates collected from May to December 2008 were studied. ESBL enzymes, phylogenetic groups, serotypes, virulence genes, sequence types (STs) and PFGE profiles were determined. Results: The most prevalent ESBLs were CTX-M-14 (47%), CTX-M-15 (26%) and SHV-12 (19%). Thirty (32%) of the 94 ESBLEC isolates belonged to the clonal group O25b:H4-B2-ST131 of which 19 (63%) carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene and eight (27%) the blaSHV-12 gene. Moreover, five additional clonal groups (O15/O25a:H1/HNM-D-ST393, O78:HNM-A-ST369, ONT:H21,42/HNM-B1-ST101, O9:H4-A-ST410 and O8:H19-B1-ST162) were detected among 16 isolates producing CTX-M-14 and SHV-12. The 30 ST131 isolates exhibited a significantly higher virulence score (mean number of virulence genes 9.60 versus 5.84) compared with the 64 non-ST131 isolates. In particular, the SHV-12-producing ST131 isolates showed the highest virulence score (range 8-13, mean score 11.75). Results also revealed that the 30 ST131 isolates were distributed in five different groups according to their virulence, XbaI macrorestriction and resistance patterns. Conclusions: We report for the first time the clonal spread of SHV-12-producing O25b:H4-B2-ST131 isolates characterized by high virulence gene content. Moreover, we describe the distribution of the ST131 isolates within different virulence groups. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source


Mora A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Blanco M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopez C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mamani R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2011

CTX-M enzymes, mainly CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15, have emerged as the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) type produced by Escherichia coli in Spain, with successful dissemination of clonal group O25b:H4-B2-ST131 producing CTX-M-15 within the hospital and community settings. However, until now CTX-M-14-producing E. coli in Spain had been shown to belong to a wide variety of serotypes with no predominance of a certain clonal group. In the present study, 654 E. coli strains positive for ESBL production obtained between 2005 and 2008 from inpatients and outpatients of four hospitals in Galicia, northwest Spain, were analysed. The strains were characterised with regard to ESBL enzymes, serotype, virulence genes, phylogenetic group, multilocus sequence type, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested DNA. As a result, the emergence of certain clonal groups of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli producing CTX-M-14 has been detected in this geographic area, including O1:HNM-D-ST59, O15:H1-D-ST393/ST1394, O20:H34/HNM-D-ST354, O25b:H4-B2-ST131 and ONT:H21,42-B1-ST101. These five clonal groups showed a high virulence potential as they harboured more than eight virulence factors, which could explain their successful dissemination. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source


Blanco J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mora A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mamani R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopez C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Objectives: To evaluate the current prevalence of the three clonal groups O25b:H4-B2-ST131, O15:H1-D-ST393 and CGA-D-ST69 (where ST stands for sequence type) among Escherichia coli isolates causing extraintestinal infections in Spain and to characterize their virulence background, 500 consecutive non-duplicate E. coli isolates causing extraintestinal infections were analysed. Methods: The 500 isolates were collected during February 2009 from five hospitals in different Spanish regions. Phylogenetic groups, STs, serotypes, virulence genes, PFGE profiles, antimicrobial resistance and extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes were determined. Results: The three clonal groups accounted for 19% of the 500 isolates. Furthermore, they accounted for 37% of the isolates exhibiting trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus ciprofloxacin resistance, 34% of aminoglycosideresistant isolates and 30% of multidrug-resistant isolates. Clonal group ST131 was the most prevalent, and accounted for 12% of isolates overall and for 23% of multidrug-resistant isolates. The ST131 isolates exhibited a significantly higher virulence score (mean of virulence genes 8.1) compared with the ST393 (6.0) and ST69 (5.4) isolates. The prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates was 7%. Six (10%) of the 59 ST131 isolates were positive for CTX-M-15 and one (6%) of the 16 ST393 isolates was positive for CTX-M-14, whereas none of the 22 ST69 isolates produced ESBL enzymes. Conclusions: The three clonal groups investigated accounted for 30% of the multidrug-resistant isolates, which gives evidence of an important clonal component in the emergence of resistances among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Notably, a single high virulence clonal group (O25b:H4-B2-ST131) causes approximately 1 in every 10 extraintestinal infections in Spain, representing an important public health threat. A new variant of the ST131 clonal group, which is non-ESBL-producing but trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistant and with high virulence content, is reported. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source


Mora A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Herrera A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Mamani R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Lopez C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 9 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

To discern the possible spread of the Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 clonal group in poultry and the zoonotic potential of avian strains, we made a retrospective search of our strain collection and compared the findings for those strains with the findings for current strains. Thus, we have characterized a collection of 19 avian O25b:H4-ST131 E. coli strains isolated from 1995 to 2010 which, interestingly, harbored the ibeA gene. Using this virulence gene as a criterion for selection, we compared those 19 avian strains with 33 human O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains obtained from patients with extraintestinal infections (1993 to 2009). All 52 O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive E. coli strains shared the fimH, kpsMII, malX, and usp genes but showed statistically significant differences in nine virulence factors, namely, papGIII, cdtB, sat, and kpsMII K5, which were associated with human strains, and iroN, kpsMII K1, cvaC, iss, and tsh, which were associated with strains of avian origin. The XbaI macrorestriction profiles of the 52 E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA-positive strains revealed 11 clusters (clusters I to XI) of >85% similarity, with four clusters including strains of human and avian origin. Cluster VII (90.9% similarity) grouped 10 strains (7 avian and 3 human strains) that mostly produced CTX-M-9 and that also shared the same virulence profile. Finally, we compared the macrorestriction profiles of the 12 CTX-M-9-producing O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA strains (7 avian and 5 human strains) identified among the 52 strains with those of 15 human O25b:H4-ST131 CTX-M-14-, CTX-M-15-, and CTX-M-32- producing strains that proved to be negative for ibeA and showed that they clearly differed in the level of similarity from the CTX-M-9-producing strains. In conclusion, E. coli clonal group O25b:H4-ST131 ibeA has recently emerged among avian isolates with the new acquisition of the K1 capsule antigen and includes CTX-M-9-producing strains. This clonal group represents a real zoonotic risk that has crossed the barrier between human and avian hosts. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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