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Pestana J.M.,University of Lisbon | Pestana J.M.,Polytechnic Institute of Leiria | Costa A.S.H.,University of Lisbon | Alves S.P.,Unidade de Investigacao em Producao Animal | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The influence of slaughter season and muscle type on the detailed fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid isomers, and contents of total cholesterol and lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamins (α-tocopherol and β-carotene) in Mirandesa-PDO veal was assessed. Mirandesa purebred calves (n= 29) were raised in a traditional production semi-extensive system, slaughtered in late spring (June) or early autumn (October) and the longissimus lumborum and semitendinosus muscles were sampled for analysis. Although the lipid composition of PDO veal was only slightly affected by the slaughter season, it was markedly changed by the muscle type. However, PDO veal had values of pasture-fed cattle for lipid grass intake indicators, in both seasons and muscles. From a human health standpoint, intramuscular fat in Mirandesa-PDO veal has a high nutritional value throughout the year, with favorable ratios of n- 6/. n- 3 and contents of n- 3 PUFA and α-tocopherol, as a result of the beneficial effects of grass feeding. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pestana J.M.,University of Lisbon | Pestana J.M.,Polytechnic Institute of Leiria | Costa A.S.H.,University of Lisbon | Alfaia C.M.,University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012

This paper characterizes the intramuscular fat from longissimus lumborum (LL, relatively red) and semitendinous (ST, relatively white) muscles of Charneca beef from young bulls reared according to the protected designation of origin (PDO) specifications. The content of total lipids, total cholesterol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as well as the fatty acid composition, including the isomeric distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), was assessed. Charneca young bulls (n = 10) were raised on a semi-extensive production system, in which animals fed pasture plus concentrate during 15 months. The ST muscle was leaner and had higher percentages of PUFA, in contrast to the LL muscle, which presented higher percentages of SFA and MUFA. Thus, the ST muscle had a higher PUFA/SFA ratio than the LL muscle, although the ratio values of both muscles were inside the recommended figures for the human diet. In contrast, the contents of CLA isomers, total cholesterol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene, as well as the n-6/n-3 ratio, were not influenced by muscle type, thus suggesting no carcass variation for these compounds. In both muscles, the n-6/n-3 ratios were slightly above the dietary guideline for human diet, and the contents of α-tocopherol were very high, indicating a good lipid stability of Charneca-PDO beef. Overall, the results suggest that intramuscular fat of Charneca-PDO beef has good human health-related parameters, with small carcass variation, since the PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratio values are inside or very close to the recommended figures for the human diet, and the content of α-tocopherol is very high. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Pestana J.M.,University of Lisbon | Pestana J.M.,Polytechnic Institute of Leiria | Costa A.S.,University of Lisbon | Martins S.V.,University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Consumer awareness regarding the intake of beef of organic origin is strongly associated with the beneficial outcomes to human health, the environment and animal welfare. In this paper the effects of slaughter season and muscle type on the fatty acid composition, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomeric profile, total cholesterol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents and nutritional quality of intramuscular fat in organic beef (n = 30) are reported for the first time. RESULTS: Organic beef showed a very low total lipid content, with seasonal changes in the levels of some fatty acids, CLA isomers, n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio, total cholesterol and β-carotene. In addition, differences between longissimus lumborum (relatively red) and semitendinosus (relatively white) muscles were found for many fatty acids, specific CLA contents, many CLA isomers and both PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SFA) and n-6/n-3 ratios. However, in spite of the seasonal and carcass variations, all organic meats analysed had values of beef similar to pasture-fed cattle. CONCLUSION: From a nutritional perspective, organic meat from both slaughter seasons seems to have high CLA contents, PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 indices within the recommended values for the human diet. The data indicate that intramuscular fat in organic meat has a high nutritional value throughout the year. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source


Jeronimo E.,Unidade de Investigacao em Producao Animal | Jeronimo E.,Polo Universitario do Alto da Ajuda | Alfaia C.M.M.,Polo Universitario do Alto da Ajuda | Alves S.P.,Unidade de Investigacao em Producao Animal | And 7 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7. days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P< 0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P= 0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Jeronimo E.,Unidade de Investigacao em Producao Animal | Jeronimo E.,Polo Universitario do Alto da Ajuda | Alves S.P.,Unidade de Investigacao em Producao Animal | Alves S.P.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | And 5 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The effect of dietary sodium bentonite and a blend of sunflower and linseed oils at 1:2 (v/v) on growth, carcass and meat quality and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus dorsi muscle of lambs was studied. Thirty-two Merino Branco lambs with initial live weights (LW) of 16.2 ± 2.93 kg were divided according to a completely randomized experimental design within a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in order to evaluate effects of the vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 g/kg versus 60 g/kg DM) and sodium bentonite inclusion in diets (0 g/kg versus 20 g/kg DM). The basal diet consisted of pellets with 750 g dehydrated lucerne/kg DM and 250 g manioc/kg DM. The experimental period was 6 weeks. Bentonite affected neither daily LW gain, dry matter (DM) intake, nor carcass composition. However, bentonite decreased the a* meat colour parameter (redness; P=0.004). Oil supplementation affected neither daily LW gain, nor DM intake. However, it increased fat proportion in chump and shoulder cuts (P<0.001), as well as kidney and knob channel fat (P<0.001) while it decreased muscle proportion in the dissected cuts (P<0.001). Oil supplementation increased intramuscular fat (P<0.001) and most meat FA. Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) increased 23% with oil supplementation (P=0.007), mostly by increasing proportions of n-3 PUFA and biohydrogenation derived PUFA. Oil supplementation decreased n-6 long chain PUFA (P<0.001). The proportion of n-3 long chain PUFA was not affected by oil supplementation, so the increase in n-3 PUFA from 1.99 g/100 g of total FA to 4.23 g/100 g of total FA (P<0.001) was mainly due to the increase of α-linolenic acid (P<0.001). However, when expressed in mg/100 g of meat, oil supplementation increased n-3 long chain PUFA concentration from 20 to 31 mg (P<0.001). All biohydrogenation intermediates (BI) increased with oil supplementation, except for cis-11 18:1 which decreased, and cis-13 18:1 and trans-8, cis-10 18:2 which were unchanged. Conjugated linoleic acid increased with oil supplementation from 0.50 to 1.72 g/100 g of total FA (P<0.001). Bentonite did not affect most meat FA, although effects occurred on some BI. Bentonite increased trans-11 18:1, but prevented the increase of trans-10 18:1 in meat from oil supplemented lambs (P<0.001). Trans-11, cis-15 18:2, cis-9, cis-15 18:2 and cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 increased with dietary bentonite inclusion. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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