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Da Silva E.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Maquiaveli C.D.C.,Programa de Pos graduacao em Fisiologia | Lucon Jr. J.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Reis M.B.G.D.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2013

The plant Cecropia pachystachya Trécul is widely used in Brazilian ethnomedicine to treat hypertension, asthma, and diabetes. Arginase is an enzyme with levels that are elevated in these disorders, and it is central to Leishmania polyamine biosynthesis. The aims of this study were to evaluate antileishmanial activity and inhibition of the arginase enzyme by C. pachystachya extracts, and to study changes in cellular organization using electron microscopy. The ethanol extract of C. pachystachya was tested on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis promastigote survival/proliferation and arginase activity in vitro. Qualitative ultrastructural analysis was also used to observe changes in cell organization. The major bioactive molecules of the ethanol extract were characterized using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract diminished promastigote axenic growth/survival, inhibited arginase activity, and altered a mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (K-DNA) array. The bioactive compounds of C. pachystachya were characterized as glucoside flavonoids. Orientin (9) (luteolin-8-C-glucoside) was the main component of the methanol-soluble ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the ethanol extract and is an arginase inhibitor (IC50 15.9 μM). The ethyl acetate fraction was not cytotoxic to splenocytes at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. In conclusion, C. pachystachya contains bioactive compounds that reduce the growth of L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes, altering mitochondrial K-DNA arrangement and inhibiting arginase. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Furlanetto P.N.C.,Unidade de Ensino Superior Inga | Novakowski G.C.,Unidade de Ensino Superior Inga | Novakowski G.C.,State University of Maringá | Correa E.A.,Unidade de Ensino Superior Inga
Acta Scientiarum - Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009) aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families). The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC) Stapf. (Lemon grass), Mentha sp. (Mint), Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo) and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane). The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations), respiratory (67 citations) and nervous system (40 citations). In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.

de Matos J.C.,Unidade de Ensino Superior Inga | Pelloso S.M.,Unidade de Ensino Superior Inga | Carvalho M.D.B.,State University of Maringá
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

This study analyzed the prevalence of secondary breast cancer prevention and associated factors in women 40 to 69 years of age in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. Prevalence was 64.5% for breast self-examination, 71.5% for clinical examination, and 79% for mammography. The data suggest that age, schooling, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, and prior hormone replacement therapy influenced the rates of the three types of examination. Preventive practices were significantly more common among women of higher socioeconomic status. Proper orientation and performance of preventive measures and tests should be at the reach of all women in the highest-risk age bracket, thereby decreasing late diagnosis and avoidable deaths and increasing the odds of curing breast cancer.

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