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Sucre, Bolivia

Poyato-Ariza F.J.,Unidad University
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010

Polazzodus coronatus, gen. et sp. nov., is a pycnodontiform fish from two proximate Late Cretaceous fossil sites near Polazzo, in northeastern Italy, where it is relatively abundant. Its autapomorphic characters are the presence of a distinctively shaped second dorsal ridge scale with an anterior projection; the presence of an olfactory fenestra on the premaxilla; an axe blade-like morphology of the maxilla; and the presence of a conspicuous posterodorsal process on the cleithrum. Polazzodus coronatus, gen. et sp. nov., is closely related to the pycnodontids Oropycnodus, Pycnodus, and probably 'Coelodus' gridelli and Tergestinia. Although their phylogenetic interrelationships will be tested when the last two forms are revised, Polazzodus coronatus is assigned to the subfamily Pycnodontinae within the Family Pycnodontidae, because it possesses the autapomorphies of both latter groups; for instance, the presence of an exposed part of the endocranium, without overlying dermal bones, which is an autapomorphy of the Pycnodontinae. The shape and large size of the supraoccipital bone in Polazzodus, together with the arrangement of the other occipital bones, indicates that this exposed portion of the endocranium is most likely formed by the endochondral supraoccipital bone. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Escuder-Gilabert L.,University of Valencia | Martin-Biosca Y.,University of Valencia | Medina-Hernandez M.J.,University of Valencia | Sagrado S.,University of Valencia | Sagrado S.,Unidad University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

Despite the fact that extensive research in the field of separations by capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been carried out and many reviews have been published in the last years, a specific review on the use and future potential of cyclodextrins (CDs) in CE is not available. This review focuses the attention in the CD-CE topic over the January 2013-February 2014 period (not covered by previous more general CE-reviews). Recent contributions (reviews and research articles) including practical uses (e.g. solute-CD binding constant estimation and further potentials; 19% of publications), developments and applications (mainly chiral and achiral analysis; 38 and 24% of publications, respectively) are summarized in nine comprehensive tables and are commented. Statistics and predictions related to the CD-CE publications are highlighted in order to infer the current and expected research interests. Finally, trends and initiatives on CD-CE attending to real needs or practical criteria are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Yin C.,Shanxi University | Huo F.,Shanxi University | Zhang J.,Shanxi University | Martinez-Manez R.,Unidad University | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Because of the biological importance of thiols, the development of probes for thiols has been an active research area in recent years. In this review, we summarize the results of recent exciting reports regarding thiol-addition reactions and their applications in thiol recognition. The examples reported can be classified into four reaction types including 1,1, 1,2, 1,3, 1,4 addition reactions, according to their addition mechanisms, based on different Michael acceptors. In all cases, the reactions are coupled to color and/or emission changes, although some examples dealing with electrochemical recognition have also been included. The use of thiol-addition reactions is a very simple and straightforward procedure for the preparation of thiol-sensing probes. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

To determine the direct cost of complete cervical spinal cord injury. 34 patients over 16 years of age with a diagnosis of complete cervical spinal cord injury. The cost calculation was done considering nine groups: bed days, specialty consultation, laboratory, X-rays, computed axial tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, anterior surgery, posterior surgery, anterior and posterior surgery. The micro costing technique was used and the mean cost per patient was obtained. 41% of patients had injury at C4-C5; mean age was 36 years; total cost was $8,622,793.00 mexican pesos, and the mean cost in patients who survived was $2,536,115.59 mexican pesos, which represented 29.4% of the total cost; the cost for the patients who died was $6,086,677.41 mexican pesos (70.6%). The percent distribution of the different components analyzed clearly shows that 51% of the total cost corresponded to hospitalization. The estimated annual cost of caring for these patients is $2,155,905.70 Mexican pesos, with an annual increase of $819,905.53 Mexican pesos. The major cost was hospitalization, so specific clinical management guidelines should be used to optimize economic resources and prevent complications that may increase the costs.

Frias M.,CSIC - Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science | Garcia R.,Unidad University | De La Villa R.V.,Unidad University | Villar E.,University "Marta Abreu" of Las Villas
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

This paper presents for the first time the influence of mixing different thermally activated paper sludges (APS) and fly ash (FA) on the pozzolanic reaction kinetics in APS-FA-Ca(OH)2 systems as a previous step to manufacture the future commercial ternary blended cements. In this study, two paper sludge wastes from different origins and activation conditions (laboratory (LS) and industrial (IS) scale) have been investigated, once mixed with fly ash at a ratio of 1:1 by weight. The results indicated that binary blends of pozzolans exhibited a high pozzolanic activity, showing that the hydrated phases produced during the pozzolanic reaction depend on the origin and activation conditions of clay wastes. At all times of reaction, the predominant phase turn out to be the LDH structures when LS pozzolan was used; meanwhile for the IS pozzolan the C4ACH12 along with the LDH were the main phases during the first 28 days. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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