Unicer Bebidas SA

Leça do Bailio, Portugal

Unicer Bebidas SA

Leça do Bailio, Portugal
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Pinto M.,University of Aveiro | Coelho E.,University of Aveiro | Nunes A.,University of Aveiro | Brandao T.,Unicer Bebidas SA | Coimbra M.A.,University of Aveiro
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2015

Brewers spent yeast (BSY) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as source of glucans and mannoproteins, with potential biological activities. In order to solubilize these carbohydrate-rich polymeric materials, a sequential extraction with hot water and alkaline solutions (0.1-8 M KOH) was performed. Mannoproteins were mainly (85%) extracted with 4 M KOH whereas glucans were extracted with 8 M KOH and in an amount that accounted only for 34% of total glucose. Final residue still accounted for 34% of the initial glucans and contained 98% of glucose. Cellulase and α-amylase treatments showed the presence of both α- and β-(1→4)-Glc linkages. To promote total solubilization of these insoluble glucans, the final residue was submitted to a partial acid hydrolysis. This work is the first report showing that the most abundant polysaccharides in BSY are polymers that contain structural features similar to cellulose, thus justifying their resistance to alkaline extractions, acid hydrolysis, and insolubility in water. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mata T.M.,University of Porto | Tavares T.F.,Polytechnic Institute of Porto | Meireles S.,Unicer Bebidas SA | Caetano N.S.,University of Porto | Caetano N.S.,Polytechnic Institute of Porto
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2015

This work aims to perform a preliminary optimization of the fermentation of brewers' spent grain (BSG) sugars to bioethanol, focusing on the pentose sugars. Firstly, it was conducted the acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for studying different reaction times and amounts of enzymes in order to convert cellulose and hemicelluloses into simple sugars. The greatest amount of total sugars achieved experimentally is 5.56 g/ 25 g of dry BSG, corresponding to a sugars maximum conversion of 22.24 % from a BSG sample with about 6 % cellulose and about 40 % hemicelluloses. This was obtained by sequentially adding the acids HCl and HNO3 with 1 wt% of concentration to BSG to perform the pre-treatment, simultaneously with 1.0657 g of Glucanex 100g and 2.0 mL of Ultraflo L for the hydrolysis. Secondly, it was studied the fermentation step, using both synthetic medium and BSG hydrolyzate, and the yeasts Pichia stipitis NCYC 1541 (P. stipitis) and Kluyveromyces marxianus NYCY 2791 (K. marxianus). Results show that the fermentation efficiency of all sugars in the synthetic media is higher than 80-% for both yeasts, but in the BSG hydrolyzate it is just 45.10 % for P. stipitis and 36.58 % for K. marxianus for a 72 h fermentation time at a 30 °C temperature. The theoretical ethanol yield from BSG hydrolyzates is 0.27 and 0.19 g ethanol/ g of sugars for respectively, P. stipitis and K. marxianus, but the actual ethanol yield obtained in this work is 0.0856 and 0.0308 g ethanol/ g of sugars, respectively that is three times smaller than the theoretical yield for P. stipitis and six times smaller for K. marxianus, which can be attributed to the presence of inhibitors resulting from the previous steps. Copyright © 2015, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Carreira P.M.,University of Lisbon | Marques J.M.,University of Lisbon | Carvalho M.R.,University of Lisbon | Nunes D.,University of Lisbon | da Silva M.A.,Unicer Bebidas S.A
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

This paper summarizes a new outlook on the conceptual model of Melgaço-Messegães CO2-rich cold (≈18 °C) mineral water systems, issuing in N of Portugal, based on their isotopic (2H, 3H, 13C, 14C and 18O) and geochemical features. Stable isotopes indicate the meteoric origin of these CO2-rich mineral waters. Based on the isotopic fractionation with the altitude, a recharge altitude between 513 up to 740 m a.s.l. was estimated, corroborating the tritium results. The lowest 3H content (0 TU) is found in the groundwater samples with the highest mineralization. The mineral waters circulation are mainly related to a granitic and granodioritic environment inducing two different groundwater types (Ca/Na-HCO3 and Na/Ca-HCO3), indicating different underground flow paths. Calcium dissolution is controlled by hydrolysis of rock-matrix silicate minerals (e.g. Ca-plagioclases) and not associated to anthropogenic sources. The shallow dilute groundwaters exhibit signatures of anthropogenic origins (e.g. NO3) and higher Na/Ca ratios. The stable isotopes together with the geochemistry provided no indication of mixing between the regional shallow cold dilute groundwater and mineral water systems. The heavy isotopic signatures identified in the δ13C data (δ13C = 4.7 ‰, performed on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) of CO2-rich mineral waters) could be derived from a deep-seated (upper mantle) source or associated to methanogenesis (CH4 source). The negligible 14C content (≈2 pmC) determined in the TDIC of the mineral waters, corroborates the hypothesis of a mantle-derived carbon source to the mineral groundwater systems or dissolution of carbonate layers at depth. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Castro C.,University of Porto | Perez-Jimenez A.,University of Porto | Perez-Jimenez A.,University of Granada | Coutinho F.,University of Porto | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

Characterization of the major classes of digestive enzymes (amylase, protease and lipase) in the pyloric caeca and intestine of an omnivorous, white seabream (Diplodus sargus) and a carnivorous, meagre (Argyrosomus regius) fish species was assessed in response to dietary brewer's spent yeast (BSY, Saccharomyces pastorianus) supplementation. For that purpose, three isonitrogenous (50%) and isolipidic (12%) diets were formulated: unsupplemented (control) or supplemented with BSY at 1 or 2%. White seabream exhibited lower proteolytic but higher amylase and lipase activities than meagre. In white seabream, BSY administration enhanced amylase and protease activities in the pyloric caeca and the intestine and lipase activity in the pyloric caeca, while in meagre, improvement on amylase activity in the pyloric caeca was observed with the 2% BSY diet. The results of the current study indicate that white seabream has higher ability to digest non-protein energy sources than meagre and that diet supplementation with BSY improved digestive capacities in both species. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Mata T.M.,University of Porto | Melo A.C.,University of Porto | Meireles S.,Unicer Bebidas SA | Mendes A.M.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2013

This work aims to analyze the possibility of growing microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) in a brewery wastewater as a potential candidate for biodiesel production. For this purpose S. obliquus was cultivated in a synthetic brewery wastewater at 12,000 Lux of light intensity, with a 12 h period of daily light and aeration. Under these conditions, results revealed an average lipid content of 27 % of dry-weight (dwt) biomass and average biomass and lipid concentrations of respectively, 0.90 and 0.24 g/L (of dwt biomass). The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) transesterified from the lipids are mainly composed of saturated esters (56.4 %) among which, palmitate (C16:0) is the most significant with a relative percentage of 47.8 % (wt). With regard to the unsaturated esters, the percentage of 10.6 % (wt) obtained for linolenate (C18:3) is below the maximum limit imposed by the EN 14214:2003 standard for this ester in biodiesel. The average molecular mass of these lipids and FAME are respectively 845.2 and 283.1 g/mol. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Caetano N.S.,University of Porto | Caetano N.S.,Polytechnic Institute of Porto | Moura R.F.,University of Porto | Meireles S.,Unicer Bebidas SA | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2013

This study performs a parametric study aiming at the optimization of the acid pretreatment step of brewer's spent grains (BSG) simultaneously with the enzymatic hydrolysis for conversion into simple sugars fermentable to bioethanol. For this purpose three acids and five enzymes were tested, by adding each two acids (HCl with H2SO4 or HCl with HNO 3) either in mixture (in one step) or sequentially (in two steps), to 25 g of dry BSG, together with varying quantities of the enzymes. Results show that when using Viscozyme L or the mixture of Cellulase and Hemicellulase by action of two acids in mixture, the total sugars conversion ranges between 20-27 wt%, in which the mixture of HCl and H2SO4 promotes a greater release of glucose plus maltose, while the mixture of HCl and HNO 3 promotes the release of higher amount of xylose and arabinose. Results also show that when Glucanex 100g and Ultraflo L are used simultaneously with the sequential addition of HCl and H2SO4, the highest total sugars conversion (54.5 wt%) is obtained using 2.30 mL of Ultraflo L and 1.67 g of Glucanex 100g. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of Glucanex 100g (from 1.67 to 2.48 g) to the same amount of Ultraflo L (2.30 mL) the total sugars conversion decreased from 54.5 wt% to 40.5 wt%. Moreover, a greater release of glucose was verified by increasing the amount of Ultraflo L (from 1.75 mL to 2.30 mL), while by increasing the amount of Glucanex 100g (from 1.67 to 2.48 g) the release of arabinose and maltose was enhanced. Also, when using Glucanex 100g and Ultraflo Lsimultaneously with the acids HCl and HNO 3, the best method to obtain high conversions of sugars is by the sequential addition of the acids, instead of in mixture. In this work, it resulted in the best conversion of BSG to simple sugars (72.1 wt%), corresponding to about 720 g of sugars per kg of dry BSG. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Martins C.,University of Aveiro | Brandao T.,Unicer Bebidas SA | Almeida A.,University of Aveiro | Rocha S.M.,University of Aveiro
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2015

The aroma profile of beer is crucial for its quality and consumer acceptance, which is modu-lated by a network of variables. The main goal of this study was to optimize solid-phase microextraction experimental parameters (fiber coating, extraction temperature, and time), taking advantage of the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography structured separation. As far as we know, it is the first time that this approach was used to the untargeted and comprehensive study of the beer volatile profile. Decarbonation is a critical sample preparation step, and two conditions were tested: static and under ultrasonic treatment, and the static condition was selected. Considering the conditions that promoted the highest extraction efficiency, the following parameters were selected: poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene fiber coating, at 40C, using 10 min of pre-equilibrium followed by 30 min of extraction. Around 700-800 compounds per sample were detected, corresponding to the beer volatile profile. An exploratory application was performed with commercial beers, using a set of 32 compounds with reported impact on beer aroma, in which different patterns can be observed through the structured chromatogram. In summary, the obtained results emphasize the potential of this methodology to allow an in-depth study of volatile molecular composition of beer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Marques J.M.,University of Lisbon | Carreira P.M.,Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear IST UTL | Goff F.,University of New Mexico | Eggenkamp H.G.M.,University of Lisbon | Antunes da Silva M.,Unicer Bebidas S.A.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012

Strontium isotopes and other geochemical signatures are used to determine the relationships between CO 2-rich thermal (Chaves: 76°C) and mineral (Vilarelho da Raia, Vidago and Pedras Salgadas: 17°C) waters discharging along one of the major NNE-SSW trending faults in the northern part of mainland Portugal. The regional geology consists of Hercynian granites (syn-tectonic-310Ma and post-tectonic-290Ma) intruding Silurian metasediments (quartzites, phyllites and carbonaceous slates). Thermal and mineral waters have 87Sr/ 86Sr isotopic ratios between 0.716713 and 0.728035. 87Sr/ 86Sr vs. 1/Sr define three end-members (Vilarelho da Raia/Chaves, Vidago and Pedras Salgadas thermal and mineral waters) trending from rainfall composition towards that of the CO 2-rich thermal and mineral waters, indicating different underground flow paths. Local granitic rocks have 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.735697-0.789683. There is no indication that equilibrium was reached between the CO 2-rich thermal and mineral waters and the granitic rocks. The mean 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the thermal and mineral waters (0.722419) is similar to the Sr isotopic ratios of the plagioclases of the granitic rocks (0.71261-0.72087). The spatial distribution of Sr isotope and geochemical signatures of waters and the host rocks suggests that the thermal and mineral waters circulate in similar but not the same hydrogeological system. Results from this study could be used to evaluate the applicability of this isotope approach in other hydrogeologic investigations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Unicer Bebidas SA and University of Aveiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of separation science | Year: 2015

The aroma profile of beer is crucial for its quality and consumer acceptance, which is modu-lated by a network of variables. The main goal of this study was to optimize solid-phase microextraction experimental parameters (fiber coating, extraction temperature, and time), taking advantage of the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography structured separation. As far as we know, it is the first time that this approach was used to the untargeted and comprehensive study of the beer volatile profile. Decarbonation is a critical sample preparation step, and two conditions were tested: static and under ultrasonic treatment, and the static condition was selected. Considering the conditions that promoted the highest extraction efficiency, the following parameters were selected: poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene fiber coating, at 40C, using 10 min of pre-equilibrium followed by 30 min of extraction. Around 700-800 compounds per sample were detected, corresponding to the beer volatile profile. An exploratory application was performed with commercial beers, using a set of 32 compounds with reported impact on beer aroma, in which different patterns can be observed through the structured chromatogram. In summary, the obtained results emphasize the potential of this methodology to allow an in-depth study of volatile molecular composition of beer.


PubMed | Unicer Bebidas SA and University of Aveiro
Type: | Journal: Carbohydrate polymers | Year: 2014

Brewers spent yeast (BSY) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as source of glucans and mannoproteins, with potential biological activities. In order to solubilize these carbohydrate-rich polymeric materials, a sequential extraction with hot water and alkaline solutions (0.1-8 M KOH) was performed. Mannoproteins were mainly (85%) extracted with 4 M KOH whereas glucans were extracted with 8 M KOH and in an amount that accounted only for 34% of total glucose. Final residue still accounted for 34% of the initial glucans and contained 98% of glucose. Cellulase and -amylase treatments showed the presence of both - and -(14)-Glc linkages. To promote total solubilization of these insoluble glucans, the final residue was submitted to a partial acid hydrolysis. This work is the first report showing that the most abundant polysaccharides in BSY are polymers that contain structural features similar to cellulose, thus justifying their resistance to alkaline extractions, acid hydrolysis, and insolubility in water.

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