Rumble L.,United Nations Childrens Fund UNICEF Indonesia |
Mungate T.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience |
Chigiji H.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience |
Salama P.,ETH Zurich |
And 3 more authors.
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2015
Sexual abuse during childhood is a public health and human rights concern throughout the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011, Zimbabwe initiated national prevalence data collection on violence against children to inform government policy and programs. We interviewed 567 females and 589 males, aged 18-24 years following standardized and previously tested survey methods from the region. Of females 32.5%, and of males 8.9%, reported experiencing sexual violence before age 18. Most female (62.7%) and male (47.9%) victims of sexual violence experienced more than one incident of sexual violence prior to age 18 years. Three in four females (77.7%) and one in four males (26.7%) of those who experienced sexual violence reported that the first incident was perpetrated by a boyfriend or girlfriend. Few victims received professional help (2.7% of females and 2.4% of males who had reported experiencing sexual violence). Violence against girls is at epidemic levels in Zimbabwe. Most sexual violence against girls occurs within the context of peer relationships. Child victims who seek potentially life-saving support tend not to receive it. This study is evidence of a national public health and child rights emergency in the country and a case for increased, longer-term investment by the government and its development partners in policy reform for enhancing adolescent girls' empowerment and protection. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Godfrey S.,UNICEF Mozambique |
Singh S.,UNICEF |
Labhasetwar P.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute |
Dwivedi H.B.,National Center for Human Settlement and Environment |
And 2 more authors.
Water and Environment Journal | Year: 2010
In line with developments in the water reuse sector, this paper applied quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) techniques to seven greywater reuse systems used for recycling shower water for toilet flushing. The objective of the study was to establish a scientific basis for health-based greywater targets for India. It involved qualitative risk assessments and quantitative microbiological analysis using Enterococci, thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) and coliphage indicator organisms. Four conclusions are drawn from this study. Firstly, the systems indicated a low risk and high quality, and secondly that low levels of risk were present in systems, resulting in the recommendation of guideline of 5000 cfu/100mL rather than 10 000 cfu/100mL for greywater utilised for direct toilet flushing. Thirdly, disability adjusted life years (DALYs) are a useful indicator of risk for evaluating the performance of a greywater reuse system in addition to chemical/microbiological indicators DALYs, and finally that TTC are a useful surrogate microbial indicator for analysis of greywater in developing countries with limited analytical facilities. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 CIWEM.
Godfrey S.,Water and Environmental Sanitation Section |
Van Der Velden M.,UNICEF Mozambique |
Muianga A.,UNICEF Mozambique |
Vigh M.,VU University Amsterdam |
And 2 more authors.
Waterlines | Year: 2014
This paper presents the findings of a longitudinal study that measures the public health impact of a multiple intervention rural water and sanitation programme termed the One Million Initiative in Central Mozambique. Data from a 2008 multiple indicator panel survey baseline is compared with results from the 2010 midline using a random selection of 1,600 households divided over 80 clusters (control and intervention communities). The study reports the impact using two statistical methods: 1) statistical analysis of double differencing; and 2) calculation of DALYs (disability adjusted life years). The results indicate a self-reported reduction from 30 per cent to 14 per cent in cases of waterborne diseases between 2008 and 2010 in the intervention areas. Regression analysis suggests that 3.1 percentage points of this 16 point decline can be attributed to interventions under the programme. Furthermore the paper noted a 2 per cent reduction in DALYs between 2008 and 2010 in the target communities. © Practical Action Publishing, 2014.
Godfrey S.,UNICEF Mozambique |
Labhasetwar P.,NEERI |
Wate S.,NEERI |
Jimenez B.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010
Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and to provide sanitation in rural low income areas of Madhya Pradesh, India. The systems are based on reclaiming greywater from bathing for the use in toilet flushing and kitchen garden irrigation. The reuse systems were implemented based on the scientific rationale presented in the WHO (2006) guidelines. The paper presents evidence from the operation and evaluation of the greywater treatment plants under field conditions between 2005 and 2008. The paper concludes that greywater is a highly cost effective solution for water scarcity. In this study, reusing greywater resulted in a 60% increase in water availability, a reduction in open defecation and a fourfold increase in food availability. © IWA Publishing 2010.