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Montel M.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Buchin S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mallet A.,Normandie University | Delbes-Paus C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in cheeses (in both core and surface) and on the wooden surfaces of traditional equipment. The inhibition seems to be associated with their qualitative and quantitative composition rather than with their degree of diversity. The inhibitory mechanisms are not well elucidated. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies have evidenced a strong association of raw-milk consumption with protection against allergic/atopic diseases; further studies are needed to determine whether such association extends to traditional raw-milk cheese consumption. In the future, the use of meta-omics methods should help to decipher how traditional cheese ecosystems form and function, opening the way to new methods of risk-benefit management from farm to ripened cheese. © 2014 .


Vibert B.,National Engineering School of Caen | Yao Z.,National Engineering School of Caen | Vernois S.,National Engineering School of Caen | Le Bars J.-M.,UNICAEN | And 2 more authors.
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2015

when someone wants to make a payment with a smartcard, the user has to enter a pin code to be identified. Only biometrics is able to authenticate a user; yet biometric information is sensitive. To ensure the security and privacy of biometric data, OCC (On-Card-Comparison) has been proposed. This approach consists in storing biometric data in a secure zone on a smartcard and computing the verification decision in a Secure Element (SE). The purpose of this paper is to propose an evaluation platform for testing biometric systems such as the analysis of performance and security on biometric OCC. Based on four examples, we illustrate its different uses in an operationnal context. The first example focus on the “Quality module” which allows to choose the enrollment by considering the fingerprint quality with one proposed metric. The second one addresses the minutiae reduction of the fingerprint template when the number of minutiae is higher than expected by the OCC. The third is based on sensors acquisition module to create databases and made attacks on sensors. The last one is the evaluation module, it permit to visualize results after an evaluation. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


Vibert B.,National Engineering School of Caen | Yao Z.,National Engineering School of Caen | Vernois S.,National Engineering School of Caen | Le Bars J.-M.,UNICAEN | And 2 more authors.
ICISSP 2015 - 1st International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy, Proceedings | Year: 2015

Nowadays, when someone wants to make a payment with a smartcard, the user has to enter a pin code to be identified. Only biometrics is able to authenticate a user; yet biometric information is sensitive. To ensure the security and privacy of biometric data, OCC (On-Card-Comparison) has been proposed. This approach consists in storing biometric data in a secure zone on a smartcard and computing the verification decision in a Secure Element (SE). The purpose of this paper is to propose an evaluation platform for testing biometric systems such as the analysis of performance and security on biometric OCC. Based on two examples, we illustrate its different uses in an operationnal context. The first example focus on the "Quality module" which allows to choose the enrollment by considering the fingerprint quality with one proposed metric. The second one addresses the minutiae reduction of the fingerprint template when the number of minutiae is higher than expected by the OCC.


Nathou C.,Caen University Hospital Center | Nathou C.,Center Cyceron | Simon G.,UNICAEN | Simon G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Brain Stimulation | Year: 2015

Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) shows high inter-subject variability in its efficacy for treating resistant auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Currently, the response of an individual patient to rTMS treatment cannot be predicted. It is possible that cortical anatomical characteristics could affect the therapeutic response. Objective We hypothesized that rTMS efficacy is related to anatomical variations underlying the stimulation target in the left temporal cortex. We investigated two regions of interest (ROIs) that have been implicated in rTMS: the left temporal cortex, where the stimulation is delivered, and the primary hand motor cortex, where the stimulation strength is determined by the resting motor threshold (rMT). Methods Fifteen patients with schizophrenia (DSM IV) underwent rTMS and magnetic resonance imaging. The scalp-to-cortex distance (SCD) and the grey matter density (GMD) were measured in both ROIs. Linear regression models were used to investigate the relationships between these measures and the clinical efficacy of rTMS. Results Treatment efficacy was highly predicted by the temporal SCD and the GMD in the temporal and primary hand motor cortex regions. In contrast, the rMT was not predicted by the primary hand motor cortex SCD or GMD. Conclusion These results suggest that rTMS treatment efficacy could be related to the depth of the temporal target. The data raise the question of whether rMT is the best measure for assessing the stimulation intensity in treating patients with schizophrenia. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Vibert B.,Normandie University | Charrier C.,UNICAEN | Lebars J.-M.,UNICAEN | Rosenberger C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

We address the selection of fingerprint minutiae given a fingerprint ISO template. Minutiae selection plays a very important role when a secure element (i.e. a smart-card) is used. Because of the limited capability of computation and memory, the number of minutiae of a stored reference in the secure element is limited. We propose in this paper a comparative study of 6 minutiae selection methods including 2 methods from the literature and 1 like reference (No Selection). Experimental results on 3 fingerprint databases from the Fingerprint Verification Competition show their relative efficiency in terms of performance and computation time. © 2015 SPIE.

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