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Montel M.-C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Buchin S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mallet A.,Normandie University | Delbes-Paus C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in cheeses (in both core and surface) and on the wooden surfaces of traditional equipment. The inhibition seems to be associated with their qualitative and quantitative composition rather than with their degree of diversity. The inhibitory mechanisms are not well elucidated. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies have evidenced a strong association of raw-milk consumption with protection against allergic/atopic diseases; further studies are needed to determine whether such association extends to traditional raw-milk cheese consumption. In the future, the use of meta-omics methods should help to decipher how traditional cheese ecosystems form and function, opening the way to new methods of risk-benefit management from farm to ripened cheese. © 2014 .


Vibert B.,National Engineering School of Caen | Yao Z.,National Engineering School of Caen | Vernois S.,National Engineering School of Caen | Le Bars J.-M.,UNICAEN | And 2 more authors.
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2015

when someone wants to make a payment with a smartcard, the user has to enter a pin code to be identified. Only biometrics is able to authenticate a user; yet biometric information is sensitive. To ensure the security and privacy of biometric data, OCC (On-Card-Comparison) has been proposed. This approach consists in storing biometric data in a secure zone on a smartcard and computing the verification decision in a Secure Element (SE). The purpose of this paper is to propose an evaluation platform for testing biometric systems such as the analysis of performance and security on biometric OCC. Based on four examples, we illustrate its different uses in an operationnal context. The first example focus on the “Quality module” which allows to choose the enrollment by considering the fingerprint quality with one proposed metric. The second one addresses the minutiae reduction of the fingerprint template when the number of minutiae is higher than expected by the OCC. The third is based on sensors acquisition module to create databases and made attacks on sensors. The last one is the evaluation module, it permit to visualize results after an evaluation. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


Vibert B.,National Engineering School of Caen | Yao Z.,National Engineering School of Caen | Vernois S.,National Engineering School of Caen | Le Bars J.-M.,UNICAEN | And 2 more authors.
ICISSP 2015 - 1st International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy, Proceedings | Year: 2015

Nowadays, when someone wants to make a payment with a smartcard, the user has to enter a pin code to be identified. Only biometrics is able to authenticate a user; yet biometric information is sensitive. To ensure the security and privacy of biometric data, OCC (On-Card-Comparison) has been proposed. This approach consists in storing biometric data in a secure zone on a smartcard and computing the verification decision in a Secure Element (SE). The purpose of this paper is to propose an evaluation platform for testing biometric systems such as the analysis of performance and security on biometric OCC. Based on two examples, we illustrate its different uses in an operationnal context. The first example focus on the "Quality module" which allows to choose the enrollment by considering the fingerprint quality with one proposed metric. The second one addresses the minutiae reduction of the fingerprint template when the number of minutiae is higher than expected by the OCC.


Rochais C.,Cermn Center Detudes Et Of Recherche Sur Le Medicament Of Normandie | Lecoutey C.,Cermn Center Detudes Et Of Recherche Sur Le Medicament Of Normandie | Gaven F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gaven F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

In this work, we describe the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a novel series of multitarget-directed ligands (MTDL) displaying both nanomolar dual-binding site (DBS) acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects and partial 5-HT4R agonist activity, among which donecopride was selected for further in vivo evaluations in mice. The latter displayed procognitive and antiamnesic effects and enhanced sAPPα release, accounting for a potential symptomatic and disease-modifying therapeutic benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (Figure Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Martin T.,UNICAEN | Martin T.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Martin T.,Normandie University | Mauvieux B.,UNICAEN | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2015

Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (τ <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society


Nathou C.,Caen University Hospital Center | Nathou C.,Center Cyceron | Simon G.,Unicaen | Simon G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Brain Stimulation | Year: 2015

Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) shows high inter-subject variability in its efficacy for treating resistant auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. Currently, the response of an individual patient to rTMS treatment cannot be predicted. It is possible that cortical anatomical characteristics could affect the therapeutic response. Objective We hypothesized that rTMS efficacy is related to anatomical variations underlying the stimulation target in the left temporal cortex. We investigated two regions of interest (ROIs) that have been implicated in rTMS: the left temporal cortex, where the stimulation is delivered, and the primary hand motor cortex, where the stimulation strength is determined by the resting motor threshold (rMT). Methods Fifteen patients with schizophrenia (DSM IV) underwent rTMS and magnetic resonance imaging. The scalp-to-cortex distance (SCD) and the grey matter density (GMD) were measured in both ROIs. Linear regression models were used to investigate the relationships between these measures and the clinical efficacy of rTMS. Results Treatment efficacy was highly predicted by the temporal SCD and the GMD in the temporal and primary hand motor cortex regions. In contrast, the rMT was not predicted by the primary hand motor cortex SCD or GMD. Conclusion These results suggest that rTMS treatment efficacy could be related to the depth of the temporal target. The data raise the question of whether rMT is the best measure for assessing the stimulation intensity in treating patients with schizophrenia. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Vibert B.,Normandie University | Charrier C.,UNICAEN | Lebars J.-M.,UNICAEN | Rosenberger C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

We address the selection of fingerprint minutiae given a fingerprint ISO template. Minutiae selection plays a very important role when a secure element (i.e. a smart-card) is used. Because of the limited capability of computation and memory, the number of minutiae of a stored reference in the secure element is limited. We propose in this paper a comparative study of 6 minutiae selection methods including 2 methods from the literature and 1 like reference (No Selection). Experimental results on 3 fingerprint databases from the Fingerprint Verification Competition show their relative efficiency in terms of performance and computation time. © 2015 SPIE.


Paillard A.C.,University of Manchester | Paillard A.C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Quarck G.,UNICAEN | Quarck G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation | Year: 2013

Several studies have suggested that anxiety may play a role in motion sickness susceptibility (MSS) variability. This study aimed to assess motion sickness susceptibility in healthy subjects and chronic vestibular patients and to investigate its relationship to gender, age and trait-anxiety. Healthy subjects (n=167) and chronic dizzy patients with various vestibulopathies (n=94), aged from 20 to 92 years old, were asked to complete Motion Sickness Susceptibility questionnaire (MSSQ) and trait-anxiety questionnaire (STAI-B). When patients were divided into those who had vestibular loss (n=51) vs. patients without vestibular loss (n=43), the MSSQ scores (mean ± SD) for patients with vestibular loss (18.8 ± 30.9) were lower than healthy subjects (36.4 ± 34.8), who were lower than vestibular patients without vestibular loss (59.0 ± 39.7). These significant differences could not be explained by gender, age, trait-anxiety, or interaction. Women had higher MSS than men, and MSS declined with age for healthy subjects and vestibular patients. The overall relationship between anxiety and MSS scores was weak and only reached significance in healthy subjects. These results support the conclusion that the vestibular system is heavily involved in MSS and that trait-anxiety may play a role in MSS but only in healthy subjects. © 2013-IOS Press and the authors.


PubMed | French National Center for Scientific Research, Cermn Center Detudes Et Of Recherche Sur Le Medicament Of Normandie and UNICAEN
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2015

In this work, we describe the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a novel series of multitarget-directed ligands (MTDL) displaying both nanomolar dual-binding site (DBS) acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects and partial 5-HT4R agonist activity, among which donecopride was selected for further in vivo evaluations in mice. The latter displayed procognitive and antiamnesic effects and enhanced sAPP release, accounting for a potential symptomatic and disease-modifying therapeutic benefit in the treatment of Alzheimers disease.


PubMed | University of Caen Lower Normandy, UNICAEN and French Atomic Energy Commission
Type: | Journal: Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2016

The alleviation of hypoxia in glioblastoma with carbogen to improve treatment has met with limited success. Our hypothesis is that the eventual benefits of carbogen depend on the capacity for vasodilation. We examined, with MRI, changes in fractional cerebral blood volume, blood oxygen saturation, and blood oxygenation level dependent signals in response to carbogen. The analyses were performed in two xenograft models of glioma (U87 and U251) recognized to have different vascular patterns. Carbogen increased fractional cerebral blood volume, blood oxygen saturation, and blood oxygenation level dependent signals in contralateral tissues. In the tumor core and peritumoral regions, changes were dependent on the capacity to vasodilate rather than on resting fractional cerebral blood volume. In the highly vascularised U87 tumor, carbogen induced a greater increase in fractional cerebral blood volume and blood oxygen saturation in comparison to the less vascularized U251 tumor. The blood oxygenation level dependent signal revealed a delayed response in U251 tumors relative to the contralateral tissue. Additionally, we highlight the considerable heterogeneity of fractional cerebral blood volume, blood oxygen saturation, and blood oxygenation level dependent within U251 tumor in which multiple compartments co-exist (tumor core, rim and peritumoral regions). Finally, our study underlines the complexity of the flow/metabolism interactions in different models of glioblastoma. These irregularities should be taken into account in order to palliate intratumoral hypoxia in clinical trials.

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