ten Have H.A.M.J.,UNESCO
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2010
UNESCO is an intergovernmental organization with 193 Member States. It is concerned with a broad range of issues regarding education, science and culture. It is the only UN organisation with a mandate in science. Since 1993 it is addressing ethics of science and technology, with special emphasis on bioethics. One major objective of the ethics programme is the development of international normative standards. This is particularly important since many Member States only have a limited infrastructure in bioethics, lacking expertise, educational programs, bioethics committees and legal frameworks. UNESCO has recently adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The focus of current activities is now on implementation of this Declaration. Three activities are discussed that aim at improving and reinforcing the ethics infrastructure in relation to science and technology: the Global Ethics Observatory, the Ethics Education Programme and the Assisting Bioethics Committees project. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.
Romanian Reports of Physics | Year: 2013
Hidden symmetries of generalized Kaluza-Klein-type metrics are studied using van Holten's systematic analysis  based on Killing tensors. Applied to generalized Taub-NUT metrics, Kepler-type symmetries with associated Runge-Lenz-type conserved quantities are constructed. In the multicenter case, the subclass of two-center metrics gives rise to a conserved Runge-Lenz-type scalar, while no Kepler-type constant of the motion does exist for non aligned (N ≥ 3)-centers. We also investigated the diatomic molecule system of Wilczek et al. where "truly" non-Abelian gauge fields mimicking monopole-like fields arised. From the latter system we deduced a new conserved charge.
Environmental Development | Year: 2012
In June 2012 the international community will commemorate "Stockholm+40" at the "Rio+20" Summit to be convened in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Originating during times of preparations for the Stockholm Conference (1972), the MAB Programme was an early experiment in the movement of international scientific co-operation towards an intergovernmental environmental arena. Compared to the 14 projects that constituted MAB in the 1970s and the early 1980s, today's Programme is concentrated on a range of research, education, monitoring and demonstration projects and initiatives in biosphere reserves. The World Network of Biosphere Reserves now counts 580 places in 114 countries and will continue to expand over the next decade. It provides a significant opportunity for the MAB Programme to promote research, learning and experimentation and collective action for sustainable development in land/seascapes located within particular cultural and political contexts. In using a global network of experimental sites for sustainability the MAB Programme may open intergovernmental environmental relations to closer collaboration with sub-national levels of government where more and more resource use and conservation decisions are made. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Airhihenbuwa C.O.,Pennsylvania State University |
Ford C.L.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2014
Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies to reduce the global disease burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes requires a reassessment of individual-based approaches to behavior change. We argue that public health and health behavior intervention should focus more on culture than behavior to achieve meaningful and sustainable change resulting in positive health outcomes. To change negative health behaviors, one must first identify and promote positive health behaviors within the cultural logic of its contexts. To illustrate these points, we discuss stigma associated with obesity and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We conclude that focusing on positive behaviors and sustaining cultural and personal transformations requires a culturally grounded approach to public health interventions, such as that provided by the PEN-3 model. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.
Price M.F.,Center for Mountain Studies |
Park J.J.,Center for Mountain Studies |
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2010
For sites designated within international networks, reporting processes have been established to ensure that these sites continue to exhibit their special characteristics and contribute to the goals of their respective network. One such network is the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR), composed of sites designated under UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere programme. This paper summarises the evolution of the concept and the realities of biosphere reserves since 1976; describes the introduction of the Statutory Framework for the WNBR, which formalised the concept and introduced a periodic review process to provide oversight of its implementation; evaluates the extent to which, since 1996, this process has been successful in achieving its aims; discusses changes which have been proposed and implemented; and provides suggestions for future action. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.