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Jia H.,Tongji University | Sun S.,Zhoushan Environmental Protection Bureau | Cunkuan B.,Tongji University | Fan C.,Environmental Engineering Assessment Center | Dahe J.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011

This research was to evaluate the Technical Guideline (HJ/T130-2003) effectiveness based on data resource from a questionnaire survey and interviews on EIA experts. The result demonstrated that the guideline served mainly as a quality control measure for PEIA products, and only a small proportion of experts considered it effective due to its inconsistency with the newly released Chinese PEIA Regulation (2009) and poor practicability. Current status of SEA implementation in China was also studied in terms of application fields, effectiveness evaluation, and major issues to affect SEA, to conclude that SEA implementation in China is premature, and with limited effectiveness. The major problem was the lack of effective methodologies and technical tools. Recommendations for revising the PEIA Guideline and advices to improving SEA implementation in China were accordingly proposed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Wang L.,Tongji University | Li Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection byproduct. The effective and economical method to control NDMA is to remove its potential NDMA precursors. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the removals of four typical NDMA precursors (dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylformamide (DMFA) and dimethylaminobenzene (DMAB)) by activated sludge and isolated strains. RESULTS: Batch experiments indicated that the specific degradation rates of the four NDMA precursors follow the order DMA > TMA > DMFA > DMAB; and under different redox conditions, follow the order aerobic > anoxic > anaerobic. In an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic activated sludge system, the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT) were 10 h and 20 days, respectively, for the removals of both NDMA precursors and nutrients. Bacterial strains were isolated from aerobic activated sludge and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A pH of 8-9 and temperature of 30-35°C were optimal for the removal of the four NDMA precursors by the isolated strains. Degradation of the four NDMA precursors by the isolated strains were fitted well by the Haldane model. CONCLUSION: These results are helpful for knowledge of the removals of NDMA precursors during activated sludge treatment processes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

Niu D.-J.,Tongji University | Niu D.-J.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Huang H.,Tongji University | Dai X.-H.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2013

About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening+anaerobic digestion+dewatering+residue land application in China. Fossil CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and avoided CO2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO2-eq is about 1133kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO2), while the net CO2-eq is about 372kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO2). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO2-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO2-eq reduction. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

He J.,Tongji University | Bao C.-K.,Tongji University | Shu T.-F.,Kangqiao Industrial Zone Administrative Committee | Yun X.-X.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011

Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Li Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Zou J.,Tongji University | Zhang L.,Tongji University | Sun J.,Tongji University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the aerobic granular sludge process for simultaneous phosphorus (P) accumulation by chemical precipitation and biological nitrogen removal via nitrite. The P-rich granules were successfully incubated in a sequencing batch reactor, in which simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred via nitrite. The average diameter of the P-rich granules was 2.47. mm and the P content in granules was much higher than that in other granular systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Filamentous bacteria (genus Thiothrix) in the granules and the long sludge retention time (30. d) of the granular system played a crucial role in accumulation of precipitated phosphate. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray and the experimental design using response surface methodology confirmed that the main mineral patterns in P-rich granules were Ca-Mg phosphate and whitlockite. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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