UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development

Shanghai, China

UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development

Shanghai, China
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Zhou Z.,Tongji University | Zhou Z.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Liu S.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Zhong G.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Cai Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development
Natural Hazards Review | Year: 2017

Shanghai is the economic center of China, but is vulnerable to threats from natural hazards. Along with climate change and fast urbanization, flood is the inevitable deterrent to the city's development. Flood hazard mitigation is considered as a critical work for the city government to ensure safety, maintain sustainable development, and reduce damages and losses. A comprehensive overview of flood management systems and considerations are of great value. So in this paper, the major causes of flooding in Shanghai are investigated and their characteristics are analyzed. Based on the new strategy of flood management aiming at reducing future impacts of flood disaster, the authors' considerations about the current flood control measurements in Shanghai are demonstrated, especially at the aspects of flood design standard and the potential threats existing in the engineering system and nonengineering system. Though it is clear that Shanghai has made remarkable achievements in flood management, flood management should be conducted from a strategic perspective of disaster prevention. © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Jia H.,Tongji University | Sun S.,Zhoushan Environmental Protection Bureau | Cunkuan B.,Tongji University | Fan C.,Environmental Engineering Assessment Center | Dahe J.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011

This research was to evaluate the Technical Guideline (HJ/T130-2003) effectiveness based on data resource from a questionnaire survey and interviews on EIA experts. The result demonstrated that the guideline served mainly as a quality control measure for PEIA products, and only a small proportion of experts considered it effective due to its inconsistency with the newly released Chinese PEIA Regulation (2009) and poor practicability. Current status of SEA implementation in China was also studied in terms of application fields, effectiveness evaluation, and major issues to affect SEA, to conclude that SEA implementation in China is premature, and with limited effectiveness. The major problem was the lack of effective methodologies and technical tools. Recommendations for revising the PEIA Guideline and advices to improving SEA implementation in China were accordingly proposed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Niu D.-J.,Tongji University | Niu D.-J.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Huang H.,Tongji University | Dai X.-H.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2013

About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening+anaerobic digestion+dewatering+residue land application in China. Fossil CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and avoided CO2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO2-eq is about 1133kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO2), while the net CO2-eq is about 372kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO2). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO2-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO2-eq reduction. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Ruan Q.,Tongji University | Ruan Q.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Huang Y.,Tongji University | Jiang W.,Tongji University | Jiang W.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2016

This paper investigates the dynamic features of cross-correlations and exceedance correlations between COMEX gold spot and futures returns using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and a test for symmetrical exceedance correlation. First, we examine the cross-correlations both qualitatively and quantitatively by employing the cross-correlations test and the DCCA method. We find that the cross-correlations are significant for all lagged orders and are weakly persistent. Our results from a rolling sample test also show that some exogenous events can apparently affect the cross-correlations between gold spot and futures returns. Second, after employing the test statistic, our empirical results show that the exceedance correlations between spot and futures returns are both positive and symmetric, indicating that the two returns co-move in the same direction and that the correlations between them are symmetrical for the upper and lower of the returns. However, the results from the rolling sample show that occasional events can induce significant asymmetries of exceedance correlations. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


He J.,Tongji University | Bao C.-K.,Tongji University | Shu T.-F.,Kangqiao Industrial Zone Administrative Committee | Yun X.-X.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011

Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Li Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Zou J.,Tongji University | Zhang L.,Tongji University | Sun J.,Tongji University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the aerobic granular sludge process for simultaneous phosphorus (P) accumulation by chemical precipitation and biological nitrogen removal via nitrite. The P-rich granules were successfully incubated in a sequencing batch reactor, in which simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred via nitrite. The average diameter of the P-rich granules was 2.47. mm and the P content in granules was much higher than that in other granular systems with enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Filamentous bacteria (genus Thiothrix) in the granules and the long sludge retention time (30. d) of the granular system played a crucial role in accumulation of precipitated phosphate. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray and the experimental design using response surface methodology confirmed that the main mineral patterns in P-rich granules were Ca-Mg phosphate and whitlockite. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang A.,Tongji University | Li Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Song Y.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

The worldwide detection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic environment and drinking water has caused wide concern in recent years. The possibility for concurrent formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during disinfection has become another significant concern for water quality. This study demonstrates that a group of PPCPs containing amine groups can serve as NDMA precursors during free chlorine or chlorine dioxide (ClO2) chlorination processes. Selected PPCPs after screening by NDMA yield were further investigated for NDMA formation conditions. High disinfectant dose and initial PPCP concentration resulted in relatively high NDMA formation potential. Linear kinetic models were developed for NDMA formation during chlorination of selected PPCPs. Although the PPCP precursors were removed significantly during chlorination, they were not completely mineralized based on the total organic carbon (TOC) loss. The existence of another possible pathway for direct formation of NDMA from tertiary amine during chlorination was indicated, in which dimethylamine (DMA) was not involved. It is recommended to control the initial PPCP concentrations prior to disinfection and to shorten the contact time to reduce the NDMA formation. ClO2 is suggested to be a proper disinfectant in order to reduce the NDMA formation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Wang L.,Tongji University | Tian J.,Tongji University | Li Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Batch experiments were conducted to investigate nitrite accumulation and N2O emission during the denitrification processes when quinoline or indole was used as the sole carbon source. The effects of COD/NO3--N ratio and pH were studied. RESULTS: While both significant transient nitrite accumulation and N2O emission occurred when quinoline was used as the carbon source, little denitrification intermediates were observed when indole was used as the carbon source. The optimal COD/NO3--N ratio for both complete denitrification and degradation of quinoline and indole were 6.8 and 5.1. Denitrification was inhibited under acidic conditions no matter with quinoline or indole as the carbon source. The optimal pH was 7.5 for both quinoline (or indole) degradation and denitrification. The nitrite accumulation and different carbon source further influenced N2O emission. When quinoline was used as the carbon source, N2O emission was observed at COD/NO3--N≤5 and pH ≤ 7.5; when indole was used as the carbon source, N2O emission was observed at COD/NO3--N≤3 and pH ≤ 6.5. Higher concentration of N2O was emitted at lower COD/NO3--N ratio and pH. CONCLUSION: COD/NO3--N ratio, pH and the types of carbon source significantly influenced the accumulation of denitrification intermediates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Wang L.,Tongji University | Li Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection byproduct. The effective and economical method to control NDMA is to remove its potential NDMA precursors. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the removals of four typical NDMA precursors (dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylformamide (DMFA) and dimethylaminobenzene (DMAB)) by activated sludge and isolated strains. RESULTS: Batch experiments indicated that the specific degradation rates of the four NDMA precursors follow the order DMA > TMA > DMFA > DMAB; and under different redox conditions, follow the order aerobic > anoxic > anaerobic. In an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic activated sludge system, the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT) were 10 h and 20 days, respectively, for the removals of both NDMA precursors and nutrients. Bacterial strains were isolated from aerobic activated sludge and identified based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A pH of 8-9 and temperature of 30-35°C were optimal for the removal of the four NDMA precursors by the isolated strains. Degradation of the four NDMA precursors by the isolated strains were fitted well by the Haldane model. CONCLUSION: These results are helpful for knowledge of the removals of NDMA precursors during activated sludge treatment processes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Zou J.,Tongji University | Li Y.,Tongji University | Li Y.,UNEP Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development | Zhang L.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2015

To better understand the effect of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size and microbial community in a granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system, three influent nitrogen concentrations were tested while carbon concentration was an unlimited factor. The results show that although ammonium and phosphate were well removed in the tested nitrogen concentration range (20-50mgL-1), granule size, the amount of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and microbial activity were affected significantly. A possible mechanism for the effect of influent nitrogen concentration on granule size is proposed based on the experimental results. The increase in proteins/polysaccharides ratio caused by high influent nitrogen concentration plays a crucial role in granule breakage. The small granule size then weakens simultaneous nitrification-denitrification, which further causes higher nitrate concentration in the effluent and lower amount of PAOs in sludge. Consequently, phosphate concentration in the anaerobic phase decreases, which plays the secondary role in granule breakage. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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