Tyler N.J.C.,University of Tromsø |
Stokkan K.-A.,University of Tromsø |
Hogg C.R.,Moorfields Eye Hospital |
Nellemann C.,UNEP GRID Arendal |
Vistnes A.I.,University of Oslo
Wildlife Society Bulletin | Year: 2016
Assessing the impact of human development on animals is complicated by the fact that overt effects may have covert causes. Cryptic impacts (sensu Raiter et al. 2014) can arise where sensory stimuli to which species respond fall outside the human sensory range. Ultraviolet (UV) light, which is detected by a range of nonprimate mammals, is a potential example. We review evidence that dark-adapted eyes of reindeer-caribou Rangifer tarandus can detect light at 330-410 nm emitted by electrical corona on high-voltage power lines, which is necessarily barely visible to humans. Based on this, we suggest that the superior ability of Rangifer to detect corona UV light may partly account for the tendency of the animals to avoid power lines. Rangifer has UV-permissive ocular media that transmit approximately 15 times more corona light than human eyes. Retinal irradiance under full dilation is in the order of 7 times greater in Rangifer compared with humans. Seasonal transformation of the tapetum lucidum substantially increases retinal sensitivity in this species in winter. Threshold distances of detection of corona by Rangifer are in the order of hundreds of meters. Displays of corona may catch the animals' attention, and plume coronas, in particular, may induce the illusion of motion (the phi phenomenon), thereby falsely signaling the presence of potential predators. Both features are likely to increase wariness and cause animals to withdraw from the source of the stimulus. We suggest that spatial and temporal variability of corona contributes to substantial variation observed in the strength and persistence of avoidance responses in Rangifer at these structures. © 2016 The Authors. Wildlife Society Bulletin published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Wildlife Society.
Kaltenborn B.P.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research |
Qvenild M.,Norwegian Institute for Nature Research |
Nellemann C.,UNEP GRID Arendal
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2011
Protected area management in Norway is undergoing institutional changes with the implementation of management models aimed at increased public participation. At the same time tourism enterprises are increasing in number within the protected areas. Greater levels of interaction with stakeholders place new demands on lead institutions in terms of communication, transparency, involvement, and power sharing. A governance perspective was used to examine some facets of the interaction between a local council managing a national park in Norway and tourism companies using the park for their operations. The main objective was to assess how the tourism sector perceives the cooperation and interface with the management institution. Semi-structured interviews were used, together with a framework of United Nations Development Programme principles of good governance: legitimacy and voice, direction, performance, accountability, and fairness. The results showed rather negative evaluations by the tourism sector, and operators expressed views, implying that the current management model fails to achieve most of the principles of good governance. Although based on a one-sided view by one group of stakeholders, the study suggests that lack of access to important processes and decisions, perceived bias towards traditional conservation, neglect of cultural heritage, and undue restrictions on access could have serious implications for developing an effective management model. © 2011 Norwegian Geographical Society.
Mercer J.,33 Gravel Close |
Kelman I.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research |
Alfthan B.,UNEP GRID Arendal |
Kurvits T.,UNEP GRID Arendal
Sustainability | Year: 2012
Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise, invasive species, ocean acidification, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and changing hazard regimes including hurricanes, floods and drought. Given high dependencies in Caribbean SIDS on natural resources for livelihoods, a focus on ecosystems and their interaction with people is essential for climate change adaptation. Increasingly, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) approaches are being highlighted as an approach to address climate change impacts. Specifically, EbA encourages the use of local and external knowledge about ecosystems to identify climate change adaptation approaches. This paper critically reviews EbA in Caribbean SIDS, focusing on the need to integrate local and external knowledge. An analysis of current EbA in the Caribbean is undertaken alongside a review of methodologies used to integrate local and external expertise for EbA. Finally key gaps, lessons learnt and suggested ways forward for EbA in Caribbean SIDS and potentially further afield are identified. © 2012 by the authors.
Kullerud L.,University of the Arctic |
Beaudoin Y.C.,UNEP GRID Arendal |
Poussart J.-N.,UNEP GRID Arendal |
Prokosch P.,UNEP GRID Arendal |
Sund H.,Geocap AS
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2013
Media, research literature, workshops, and political meetings over the past years have had a surprisingly rich, and partly under informed by fact, debate on race for resources and possible conflicts in the Arctic. This paper takes a careful look at UN Law of the Seas, Article 76 which regulate rights to the seabed outside exclusive economic zone for the Arctic Basin. It is evident that the Arctic will in future include seabed not under jurisdiction by any of the coastal states, but all area with expected major resources is already, or will become unquestionably under control by one of the coastal states. It is also evident that any potential territorial disagreements will be about relative small areas, and these areas have very low expectation for major resources.
Bhatta L.D.,International Center for Integrated Mountain Development |
Van Oort B.E.H.,CICERO Center for International Climate and Environmental Research |
Rucevska I.,UNEP GRID Arendal |
Baral H.,University of Melbourne
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management | Year: 2014
Payment for ecosystem services (PESs) is part of a new and more direct conservation and management paradigm explicitly recognizing: (1) the need to bridge the interests of communities connected by ecosystems, (2) the costs of securing and maintaining the provision of different ecosystem services and (3) that those who benefit from these services need to pay for these costs. While discussions on the potential of PES are becoming more frequent, Nepal lacks concrete policies and an umbrella legislative framework at the national, sub-national, and institutional levels to operationalize PES. A lack of vertical and horizontal coordination among government departments and agencies often creates problems at the implementation level.This paper discusses PES as a possible instrument to finance ecosystem management in Nepal, based on lessons learned from various ongoing PES-type schemes. We review a number of such schemes based on the available literature and key informant surveys in selected PES pilot sites. We argue that PES experience in Nepal remains limited and is as yet insufficient as basis for mainstreaming. We recommend that (1) existing schemes need to be monitored to analyze challenges and effectiveness, and (2) such analyses should be carried out simultaneously with informing the national policy dialog to support the debate on implementing PES for sustainable ecosystem management. © 2013 © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.