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Decker M.R.,Center for Public Health and Human Rights | Crago A.-L.,University of Toronto | Chu S.K.H.,A+ Network | Sherman S.G.,Center for Public Health and Human Rights | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet

We reviewed evidence from more than 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV implications of human rights violations against sex workers. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations directly and indirectly increase HIV susceptibility, and undermine effective HIV-prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide; physical and sexual violence, from law enforcement, clients, and intimate partners; unlawful arrest and detention; discrimination in accessing health services; and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, although most profoundly where sex work is criminalised through punitive law. Protection of sex workers is essential to respect, protect, and meet their human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Research findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalised population. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Crawled News Article
Site: economictimes.indiatimes.com

Railways is organising the international summit on 'Energy Efficient Technologies in Railways' on November 6 here, in partnership with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). NEW DELHI: To explore the latest energy efficient solutions, Railways is organising a summit to exchange ideas with global experts to reduce energy bills and carbon footprint in a sustainable manner. The aim is to find new technologies and innovative solutions to improve energy efficiency in the national transporter, said a senior Railway Ministry official. For the first time, Railways is partnering with UNDP to explore energy efficiency trends and technologies that aim at reducing electricity consumption in train operation and also in other areas in the public transporter. The summit will bring together global leaders and policy think tanks from the railway sector to engage with industry experts and partners. Delegates will share their experiences in form of papers and presentations to enrich the audience. The summit will provide a platform for policy makers, manufacturers, researchers and other stakeholders to discuss potential energy efficiency solutions and technologies for reducing railways' carbon footprint. It will help in preparing the road map for achieving the desired reduction in carbon emissions, said the official. Railways is currently undertaking detailed energy audit which will reveal huge potential for energy saving. Railways is one of the largest consumers of energy in the country and has tremendous scope for growth and massive investment opportunities in the coming future. It is committed to achieve a cumulative target of electrifying 33,000 km of its existing tracks and adding another 25,000 km of new lines by 2020. To meet this target in an energy efficient and sustainable manner, Railways has developed a long-term (2010-2032) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programme. The summit will facilitate dissemination of information on important advances made in design and delivery of electric traction technologies and other solutions in the sector.

Banka BioLoo, an Indian social enterprise that provides solutions for human waste treatment, has joined the Business Call to Action (BCtA) with a commitment to expand distribution of environmentally-friendly bio-toilets to low-income people across India. BCtA is a global initiative that encourages companies to fight poverty through inclusive business models. It is supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other international organisations. Banka BioLoo’s inclusive business model calls for the installation of 300,000 “bioloos” – the company’s innovative sanitation system – across the country by 2020. Bioloos will also be installed in 3,000 schools – reaching an additional 120,000 girls. The company estimates that 94,000 local, temporary jobs will be created as a result of this expansion. “Banka BioLoo is committed to environmental sustainability and social uplift by providing affordable and sustainable solutions for sanitation across India,” said Sanjay Banka, Banka BioLoo’s chief executive officer. “By providing eco-friendly bio-toilets, we are helping to meet the new Sustainable Development Goals while supporting the Indian government’s vision of a cleaner, healthier society. We are pleased to have our business model recognised by the Business Call to Action and look forward to working with fellow members to advance the new global development agenda.” The shortage of sanitation facilities in India is a major concern. Nearly 600 million people – half of the country’s population – lack access to adequate sanitation, which increases the risk of water contamination and diseases. According to the World Bank, diarrhea kills approximately 800,000 children under age five every year and leaves millions more malnourished and stunted. The absence of sanitation is especially acute in rural and peri-urban areas with its higher than average population density and lack of access to water and sewage infrastructure. To address the need for an inexpensive and easy-to-operate alternative to traditional waste disposal, bioloos treat human waste at the source with no need for transport, no contamination of the environment or groundwater, no energy requirements and no heavy infrastructure. The bio-toilet system leaves pathogen-free water that can be used for gardening. In large bio-tanks, methane can also be collected and used for fuel.

Crawled News Article
Site: www.vanguardngr.com

Two months after the relatively successful general elections, the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP penultimate week, convened a review of the media coverage and performance before and during the elections. The two-day review in Lagos on June 9 and 10 was essentially to appraise media performance with a view towards achieving a better performance by all election stakeholders in future elections. The conference by the UNDP through the Democratic Governance for Development (DGDII), a project of the UNDP, drew participation from the media, media support groups, the Independent National Electoral Commission which was represented by the Resident Electoral Commissioner, REC, in Lagos State, Mr. Akin Orebiyi. Also present were media unions, media regulatory agencies, media support groups; men and women from the academia, advocates of development communication; gender advocates; international development partners among other stakeholders. Among the issues that were raised during the presentations and panel discussions the Electoral Management System and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria; Voter Education and Media Coverage of the 2015 Elections: an Assessment, the Nigerian Media Code of Election Coverage and other legal/professional frameworks; Capacity Building Initiatives: Relevance and Results; Online and Social Media; what value added to the integrity of the elections and the Media, Elections and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria: Roadmap towards 2019. Mr. Nick Dazang, the head of publicity at INEC in a paper presented on his behalf by the head of publicity in Lagos, Mr. Femi Akinbiyi, spoke of the efforts of INEC in creating awareness among voters through among others means including “the institution of the National Interagency Committee on Voter Education and Publicity (NICVEP); a Communication Policy; a Gender Policy; and Summits for Youths and Persons Living With Disabilities.” Mr. Lanre Arogundade a development communication expert also spoke just as Mr. Edeetan Ojo, executive director, Media Rights Agenda, ERA presented a paper titled “The Media, Elections and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria: Roadmap Towards 2019.” In it, he affirmed that the current government should be held accountable to its promise of “change” and its responsibility for good governance, that preparations towards building on the successes of the 2015 elections should commence and that the shortcomings of the media during the last elections be adequately addressed. Emmanuel Aziken, Vanguard’s Political Editor, on his part spoke on voter education and media coverage and gave a narrative of his medium’s efforts in boosting awareness among voters in the process of voting. He especially highlighted how Vanguard brought created much awareness on the use of the card reader among the reading public. He nevertheless faulted the distant relationship between the Election Management Body, EMB and many journalists especially in the area of voter education. Following the observations and other presentations, the participants in a communiqué issued at the end of the two-day review, recommended thus:

Fulu E.,UNDP Inc | Jewkes R.,Gender and Health Research Unit | Jewkes R.,University of Witwatersrand | Roselli T.,UNDP Inc | Garcia-Moreno C.,World Health Organization
The Lancet Global Health

Background: Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) is under-researched. In this Article, we present data for the prevalence of, and factors associated with, male perpetration of IPV from the UN Multi-country Cross-sectional Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of perpetration of partner violence, identify factors associated with perpetration of different forms of violence, and inform prevention strategies. Methods: We undertook standardised population-based household surveys with a multistage representative sample of men aged 18-49 years in nine sites in Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Papua New Guinea between January, 2011, and December, 2012. We built multinomial regression models of factors associated with lifetime violence perpetration: physical IPV, sexual IPV, both physical and sexual IPV, multiple emotional or economic IPV versus none, and calculated population-attributable fractions. In the analysis, we considered factors related to social characteristics, gender attitudes and relationship practices, victimisation history, psychological factors, substance misuse, and participation in violence outside the home. Findings: 10 178 men completed interviews in our study (between 815 and 1812 per site). The response rate was higher than 82·5% in all sites except for urban Bangladesh (73·2%) and Sri Lanka (58·7%). The prevalence of physical or sexual IPV perpetration, or both, varied by site, between 25·4% (190/746; rural Indonesia) and 80·0% (572/714; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). When multiple emotional or economic abuse was included, the prevalence of IPV perpetration ranged from 39·3% (409/1040; Sri Lanka) to 87·3% (623/714; Bougainville, Papua New Guinea). Factors associated with IPV perpetration varied by country and type of violence. On the basis of population-attributable fractions, we show factors related to gender and relationship practices to be most important, followed by experiences of childhood trauma, alcohol misuse and depression, low education, poverty, and involvement in gangs and fights with weapons. Interpretation: Perpetration of IPV by men is highly prevalent in the general population in the sites studied. Prevention of IPV is crucial, and interventions should address gender socialisation and power relations, abuse in childhood, mental health issues, and poverty. Interventions should be tailored to respond to the specific patterns of violence in various contexts. Physical and sexual partner violence might need to be addressed in different ways. Funding: Partners for Prevention-a UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, UN Women, and UN Volunteers regional joint programme for gender-based violence prevention in Asia and the Pacific; UN Population Fund Bangladesh and China; UN Women Cambodia and Indonesia; UN Development Programme in Papua New Guinea and Pacific Centre; and the Governments of Australia, the UK, Norway, and Sweden. © 2013 Fulu et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Source

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