UL is an American worldwide safety consulting and certification company headquartered in Northbrook, Illinois. It maintains offices in 46 countries. UL was established in 1894 and has participated in the safety analysis of many of the last century's new technologies, most notably the public adoption of electricity and the drafting of safety standards for electrical devices and components.UL provides safety-related certification, validation, testing, inspection, auditing, advising and training services to a wide range of clients, including manufacturers, retailers, policymakers, regulators, service companies, and consumers.UL is one of several companies approved to perform safety testing by the US federal agency Occupational Safety and Health Administration . OSHA maintains a list of approved testing laboratories, which are known as Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories. Wikipedia.
Jeevarajan J.,Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
33rd Annual International Battery Seminar and Exhibit: Advanced Battery Technologies for Consumer, Automotive and Military Applications
Complete characterization of performance and safety of lithium-ion cells and batteries should be carried out to carve out the baseline (qualification of design) Test stringently and extensively in the relevant configuration and environment to understand and characterize the limitations. Use Stringent screening methods for cells and batteries. Being vigilant of off-nominal behavior and recognizing this during the life of the battery is a critical part of removing defective cells/batteries from service before they go into a catastrophic failure mode. More important for long term usage batteries. Lastly, usage limits, appropriate monitoring and control, cell balancing and thermal design are key to prevent subtle defects from turning into nucleation sites for larger fault conditions. Analysis and modeling are ways to lower cost of testing large modules and batteries; however, full scale safety testing should be carried out with the final full scale battery design Test, design, retest, redesign,...dynamic pattern is required for confirmation of safety. Source
Bogue R.,Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
EIC 1973 - Proceedings of the 11th Electrical Insulation Conference
Whether to ground or not to ground-That is the question. The rules for the grounding of electrical equipment are found in Article 250 of the National Electrical Code1. The rules in Article 250 have changed over the years to unfold a studied plan2 for equipment grounding. The plan is continued under the aegis of the Panel 5 Code Committee. The stages of implementation of the plan are reflected in changes in the prime safety standards concerning electrical equipment: UL 45, Standard for Safety for Portable Electric Tools3, for example, has been modified many times to implement the guidelines provided by the Code. Knowledge of the two methods of protection against electric shock-grounding and double insulation-covered in UL 45 should provide some insight to the level of protection afforded by each. © 1973 IEEE. Source
Galan S.,Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Conference Proceedings for the 82nd Annual Convention of the Wire Association International
This presentation focuses on updates made to UL's Mark Integrity Program for Telecommunications Cable. Procedures as well as "screening tests" and new labeling requirements which were added to the program to help reduce the amount of noncompliant/counterfeit cable entering the North American marketplace are discussed. Attendees will learn the correct marking requirements for telecommunications cabling products as well as those for the associated reels, cartons, etc. Recent Public Notices are also reviewed. Copyright © 2012 The Wire Association International Inc. Guilford, Connecticut, USA. Source
Cole M.,Hubbell Canada LP |
McManama K.,Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) System for Certification to Standards Relating to Equipment for Use in Explosive Atmospheres (IECEx) has expanded its scope from product certification to include the certification of individuals working in or with hazardous location industries. © 1975-2012 IEEE. Source
Okano Y.,Tokyo City University |
Shimoji H.,Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
The specific absorption rate (SAR) is an indicator of the thermal effects caused by microwave exposure in biological tissue. Conventionally, an electric field probe scanning method is used for SAR evaluation. Although many countries have confirmed the validity of the electric field probe scanning method used in many SAR evaluation devices, a comparison between physically different measurement techniques is an important goal for validating a standard and for evaluating the uncertainty of a measurement system. Hence, the authors developed a thermal SAR measurement method using an optical fiber thermal sensor. In this paper, the results of comparison measurements between the electric field probe scanning system and the proposed thermal SAR measurement system are presented. The results show that the SAR measurements by each system overlap within the range of the expanded standard uncertainty in the frequency range of 2-6 GHz. © 2006 IEEE. Source