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Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada | Das U.N.,Bioscience Research Center
Nutrition | Year: 2013

Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and catecholamines and cytokines are altered. Antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are needed for the normal metabolism of neurotrophic factors, eicosanoids, and neurotransmitters, supporting reports of their alterations in autism. But, the exact relationship among these factors and their interaction with genes and proteins concerned with brain development and growth is not clear. It is suggested that maternal infections and inflammation and adverse events during intrauterine growth of the fetus could lead to alterations in the gene expression profile and proteomics that results in dysfunction of the neuronal function and neurotransmitters, alteration(s) in the metabolism of PUFAs and their metabolites resulting in excess production of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids that ultimately results in the development of autism. Based on these evidences, it is proposed that selective delivery of BDNF and methods designed to augment the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and PUFAs may prevent, arrest, or reverse the autism disease process. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Bio Science Research Center | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Critical Care | Year: 2013

The usefulness of n-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the critically ill is controversial. I propose that adverse outcome in the critically ill is due to excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while generation of anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs may lead to a favorable outcome. Hence, I suggest that measurement of plasma levels of various cytokines, free radicals, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs and correlating them to the clinical picture may pave the way to identify prognostic markers and develop newer therapeutic strategies to prevent and manage critical illness. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.

Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Hospital and BioScience Research Center
Nutrition | Year: 2015

Preeclampsia is a low-grade systemic inflammatory condition in which oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction occurs. Plasma levels of soluble receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-1, also known as sFlt1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1), an antiangiogenic factor have been reported to be elevated in preeclampsia. It was reported that pregnant mice deficient in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity show a preeclampsia-like phenotype due to a deficiency or absence of 2-methoxyoestradiol (2-ME), a natural metabolite of estradiol that is elevated during the third trimester of normal human pregnancy. Additionally, autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) that bind and activate the angiotensin II receptor type 1 a (AT1 receptor) also have a role in preeclampsia. None of these abnormalities are consistently seen in all the patients with preeclampsia and some of them are not specific to pregnancy. Preeclampsia could occur due to an imbalance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. VEGF, an angiogenic factor, is necessary for the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to endothelial cells. Hence reduced VEGF levels decrease the availability of PUFAs to endothelial cells. This leads to a decrease in the formation of anti-inflammatory and angiogenic factors: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins from PUFAs. Lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and PUFAs suppress insulin resistance; activation of leukocytes, platelets, and macrophages; production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α and oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction; and enhance production of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). Estrogen enhances the formation of lipoxin A4 and NO. PUFAs also augment the production of NO and inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and antagonize the actions of angiotensin II. Thus, PUFAs can prevent activation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 a (AT1 receptor). Patients with preeclampsia have decreased plasma phospholipid concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the precursors of lipoxins (from AA), resolvins (from EPA and DHA), and protectins (from DHA) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 from DGLA: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid) and prostacyclin (PGI2 derived from AA). Based on these evidences, it is proposed that preeclampsia may occur due to deficiency of PUFAs and their anti-inflammatory products: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Das U.N.,UND Life science
Metabolic Syndrome Pathophysiology: The Role of Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2010

Avoiding or controlling fatigue damage is a major issue in the design and inspection of welded structures subjected to dynamic loading. Life predictions are usually used for safe life analysis, i.e. for verifying that it is very unlikely that fatigue damage will occur during the target service life of a structure. Damage tolerance analysis is used for predicting the behavior of a fatigue crack and for planning of in-service scheduled inspections. It should be a high probability that any cracks appearing are detected and repaired before they become critical. In both safe life analysis and the damage tolerance analysis there may be large uncertainties involved that have to be treated in a logical and consistent manner by stochastic modeling. This book focuses on fatigue life predictions and damage tolerance analysis of welded joints and is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the common practice used for safe life and damage tolerance analysis with reference to rules and regulations. The second part emphasises stochastic modeling and decision-making under uncertainty, while the final part is devoted to recent advances within fatigue research on welded joints. Industrial examples that are included are mainly dealing with offshore steel structures. Spreadsheets which accompany the book give the reader the possibility for hands-on experience of fatigue life predictions, crack growth analysis and inspection planning. As such, these different areas will be of use to engineers and researchers. © 2010 Undurti N. Das.

Das U.,UND Life science
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Sepsis accounts for more than 200,000 deaths annually in the USA alone. Both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses occur simultaneously in sepsis, the early phase dominated by the hyperinflammatory response and the late phase by immunosuppression. This late immunosuppression phase leads to loss of the delayed type hypersensitivity response, failure to clear the primary infection and development of secondary infections. Based on the available data, I hypothesize that failure to produce adequate amounts of inflammation resolving lipid mediators may be at the centre of both the hyperinflammatory response and late immunosuppression seen in sepsis. These proresolving lipids - lipoxins, resolvins and protectins - suppress exacerbated activation of leukocytes and macrophages, inhibit excess production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, initiate resolution of inappropriate inflammation, augment clearance of bacteria and other pathogens, and restore homeostasis. If true, this implies that administration of naturally occurring lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins and nitrolipids by themselves or their more stable synthetic analogues such as 15-epi-16-(para-fluoro-phenoxy)- lipoxin A4-methyl ester, a synthetic analogue of 15-epi-lipoxin A4, and 15(R/S)-methyl-LXA4 may form a new approach in the prevention (in the high-risk subjects), management of sepsis and in resolving the imbalanced inflammatory process such that sepsis is ameliorated early. In addition, recent studies have suggested that nociceptin and cold inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) also have a role in the pathobiology of sepsis. It is suggested that both nociceptin and CIRBP inhibit the production of lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and nitrolipids and thus play a role in sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2014 Termedia & Banach.

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