Town and Country, WA, United States
Town and Country, WA, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada | Das U.N.,BioScience Research Center
Nutrition | Year: 2013

Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and catecholamines and cytokines are altered. Antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are needed for the normal metabolism of neurotrophic factors, eicosanoids, and neurotransmitters, supporting reports of their alterations in autism. But, the exact relationship among these factors and their interaction with genes and proteins concerned with brain development and growth is not clear. It is suggested that maternal infections and inflammation and adverse events during intrauterine growth of the fetus could lead to alterations in the gene expression profile and proteomics that results in dysfunction of the neuronal function and neurotransmitters, alteration(s) in the metabolism of PUFAs and their metabolites resulting in excess production of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids that ultimately results in the development of autism. Based on these evidences, it is proposed that selective delivery of BDNF and methods designed to augment the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and PUFAs may prevent, arrest, or reverse the autism disease process. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Nutrition | Year: 2010

Obesity, which is assuming alarming proportions, has been attributed to genetic factors, hypothalamic dysfunction, and intestinal gut bacteria and an increase in the consumption of energy-dense food. Obesity predisposes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Recent studies have shown that the intestinal bacteria in obese humans and mice differ from those in lean that could trigger a low-grade systemic inflammation. Consumption of a calorie-dense diet that initiates and perpetuates obesity could be due to failure of homeostatic mechanisms that regulate appetite, food consumption, and energy balance. Hypothalamic factors that regulate energy needs of the body, control appetite and satiety, and gut bacteria that participate in food digestion play a critical role in the onset of obesity. Incretins, cholecystokinin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, leptin, long-chain fatty acid coenzyme A, endocannabinoids and vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine play a role in the regulation of energy intake, glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and pathobiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, there is a cross-talk among the gut, liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. Based on these evidences, it is clear that management of obesity needs a multifactorial approach. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Bio Science Research Center | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Critical Care | Year: 2013

The usefulness of n-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the critically ill is controversial. I propose that adverse outcome in the critically ill is due to excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while generation of anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs may lead to a favorable outcome. Hence, I suggest that measurement of plasma levels of various cytokines, free radicals, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs and correlating them to the clinical picture may pave the way to identify prognostic markers and develop newer therapeutic strategies to prevent and manage critical illness. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Krishna Institute of Medical science
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2011

Stem cells are pluripotent and expected to be of benefit in the management of coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease in which pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased. Identifying endogenous bioactive molecules that have a regulatory role in stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation may aid in the use of stem cells in various diseases including cancer. Essential fatty acids form precursors to both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules have been shown to regulate gene expression, enzyme activity, modulate inflammation and immune response, gluconeogenesis via direct and indirect pathways, function directly as agonists of a number of G protein-coupled receptors, activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and stimulate cell proliferation via Ca 2+, phospholipase C/protein kinase, events that are also necessary for stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Hence, it is likely that bioactive lipids play a significant role in various diseases by modulating the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells in addition to their capacity to suppress inflammation. Ephrin Bs and reelin, adhesion molecules, and microRNAs regulate neuronal migration and cancer cell metastasis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their products seem to modulate the expression of ephrin Bs and reelin and several adhesion molecules and microRNAs suggesting that bioactive lipids participate in neuronal regeneration and stem cell proliferation, migration, and cancer cell metastasis. Thus, there appears to be a close interaction among essential fatty acids, their bioactive products, and inflammation and cancer growth and its metastasis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,BioScience Research Center | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2013

In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs that induce apoptosis of Β cells and cause peripheral insulin resistance respectively though the degree of their increased production is higher in type 1 and less in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanism(s) that lead to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and ROS is not known. Studies showed that plasma concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) are low in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in experimental animals and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior administration of AA, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively) and transgenic animals that produce increased amounts of EPA and DHA acids were protected from chemical-induced diabetes mellitus that was associated with enhanced formation of LXA4 and resolvins, while protectin D1 ameliorated peripheral insulin resistance. AA, LXA4, resolvins and protectins inhibit IL-6 and TNF-α production and suppress ROS generation. Thus, AA and lipoxins, resolvins and protectins may function as endogenous anti-diabetic molecules implying that their administration could be useful in the prevention and management of both types of diabetes mellitus. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital
Nutrition | Year: 2015

Nutritional factors such as magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, l-arginine, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) appear to be significantly beneficial for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the prevention and arresting the progression of HF and cardiac arrhythmias. Additionally, ingestion of adequate amounts of protein and maintaining normal concentrations of plasma albumin seem to be essential for these patients. These nutrients closely interact with the metabolism of l-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) system, essential fatty acids, and eicosanoids such that beneficial products such as NO, prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, prostaglandin I3, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins are generated and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines is suppressed that results in platelet anti-aggregation, vasodilation, angiogenesis, and prevention of CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and stabilization of HF. This implies that individuals at high risk for CAD, cardiac arrhythmias, and HF and those who have these diseases need to be screened for plasma levels of magnesium, folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, l-arginine, NO, various PUFAs, lipoxin A4, resolvins, protectins, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (an endogenous inhibitor of NO), albumin, and various eicosanoids and cytokines and correct their abnormalities to restore normal physiology. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.,UND Life science
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Sepsis accounts for more than 200,000 deaths annually in the USA alone. Both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses occur simultaneously in sepsis, the early phase dominated by the hyperinflammatory response and the late phase by immunosuppression. This late immunosuppression phase leads to loss of the delayed type hypersensitivity response, failure to clear the primary infection and development of secondary infections. Based on the available data, I hypothesize that failure to produce adequate amounts of inflammation resolving lipid mediators may be at the centre of both the hyperinflammatory response and late immunosuppression seen in sepsis. These proresolving lipids - lipoxins, resolvins and protectins - suppress exacerbated activation of leukocytes and macrophages, inhibit excess production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, initiate resolution of inappropriate inflammation, augment clearance of bacteria and other pathogens, and restore homeostasis. If true, this implies that administration of naturally occurring lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins and nitrolipids by themselves or their more stable synthetic analogues such as 15-epi-16-(para-fluoro-phenoxy)- lipoxin A4-methyl ester, a synthetic analogue of 15-epi-lipoxin A4, and 15(R/S)-methyl-LXA4 may form a new approach in the prevention (in the high-risk subjects), management of sepsis and in resolving the imbalanced inflammatory process such that sepsis is ameliorated early. In addition, recent studies have suggested that nociceptin and cold inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) also have a role in the pathobiology of sepsis. It is suggested that both nociceptin and CIRBP inhibit the production of lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and nitrolipids and thus play a role in sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2014 Termedia & Banach.


Das U.N.,UND Life science
Metabolic Syndrome Pathophysiology: The Role of Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2010

Avoiding or controlling fatigue damage is a major issue in the design and inspection of welded structures subjected to dynamic loading. Life predictions are usually used for safe life analysis, i.e. for verifying that it is very unlikely that fatigue damage will occur during the target service life of a structure. Damage tolerance analysis is used for predicting the behavior of a fatigue crack and for planning of in-service scheduled inspections. It should be a high probability that any cracks appearing are detected and repaired before they become critical. In both safe life analysis and the damage tolerance analysis there may be large uncertainties involved that have to be treated in a logical and consistent manner by stochastic modeling. This book focuses on fatigue life predictions and damage tolerance analysis of welded joints and is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the common practice used for safe life and damage tolerance analysis with reference to rules and regulations. The second part emphasises stochastic modeling and decision-making under uncertainty, while the final part is devoted to recent advances within fatigue research on welded joints. Industrial examples that are included are mainly dealing with offshore steel structures. Spreadsheets which accompany the book give the reader the possibility for hands-on experience of fatigue life predictions, crack growth analysis and inspection planning. As such, these different areas will be of use to engineers and researchers. © 2010 Undurti N. Das.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Hospital and BioScience Research Center
Nutrition | Year: 2015

Preeclampsia is a low-grade systemic inflammatory condition in which oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction occurs. Plasma levels of soluble receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-1, also known as sFlt1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1), an antiangiogenic factor have been reported to be elevated in preeclampsia. It was reported that pregnant mice deficient in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity show a preeclampsia-like phenotype due to a deficiency or absence of 2-methoxyoestradiol (2-ME), a natural metabolite of estradiol that is elevated during the third trimester of normal human pregnancy. Additionally, autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) that bind and activate the angiotensin II receptor type 1 a (AT1 receptor) also have a role in preeclampsia. None of these abnormalities are consistently seen in all the patients with preeclampsia and some of them are not specific to pregnancy. Preeclampsia could occur due to an imbalance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. VEGF, an angiogenic factor, is necessary for the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to endothelial cells. Hence reduced VEGF levels decrease the availability of PUFAs to endothelial cells. This leads to a decrease in the formation of anti-inflammatory and angiogenic factors: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins from PUFAs. Lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and PUFAs suppress insulin resistance; activation of leukocytes, platelets, and macrophages; production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α and oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction; and enhance production of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). Estrogen enhances the formation of lipoxin A4 and NO. PUFAs also augment the production of NO and inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and antagonize the actions of angiotensin II. Thus, PUFAs can prevent activation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 a (AT1 receptor). Patients with preeclampsia have decreased plasma phospholipid concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the precursors of lipoxins (from AA), resolvins (from EPA and DHA), and protectins (from DHA) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 from DGLA: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid) and prostacyclin (PGI2 derived from AA). Based on these evidences, it is proposed that preeclampsia may occur due to deficiency of PUFAs and their anti-inflammatory products: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.N.,UND Life science
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) | Year: 2013

Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and catecholamines and cytokines are altered. Antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are needed for the normal metabolism of neurotrophic factors, eicosanoids, and neurotransmitters, supporting reports of their alterations in autism. But, the exact relationship among these factors and their interaction with genes and proteins concerned with brain development and growth is not clear. It is suggested that maternal infections and inflammation and adverse events during intrauterine growth of the fetus could lead to alterations in the gene expression profile and proteomics that results in dysfunction of the neuronal function and neurotransmitters, alteration(s) in the metabolism of PUFAs and their metabolites resulting in excess production of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids that ultimately results in the development of autism. Based on these evidences, it is proposed that selective delivery of BDNF and methods designed to augment the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and PUFAs may prevent, arrest, or reverse the autism disease process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Loading UND Life science collaborators
Loading UND Life science collaborators