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Junginger M.,University Utrecht | van Dam J.,Jinke van Dam Consultancy | Zarrilli S.,UNCTAD | Ali Mohamed F.,Vienna International Center | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

Recently, the international trade of various bioenergy commodities has grown rapidly, yet this growth is also hampered by some barriers. The aim of this paper is to obtain an overview of what market actors currently perceive as major opportunities and barriers for the development of international bioenergy trade. The work focuses on three bioenergy commodities: bioethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets. Data were collected through an internet-based questionnaire. The majority of the 141 respondents had an industrial background. Geographically, two-thirds were from (mainly Western) Europe, with other minor contributions from all other continents. Results show that import tariffs and the implementation of sustainability certification systems are perceived as (potentially) major barriers for the trade of bioethanol and biodiesel, while logistics are seen mainly as an obstacle for wood pellets. Development of technical standards was deemed more as an opportunity than a barrier for all commodities. Most important drivers were high fossil fuel prices and climate change mitigation policies. Concluding, to overcome some of the barriers, specific actions will be required by market parties and policy makers. Import tariffs for biofuels could be reduced or abolished, linked to multinational trade agreements and harmonization (including provisions on technical standards and sustainability requirements). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hoekman B.,The World Bank | Nicita A.,UNCTAD
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2010

This paper compares the predicted trade impacts of a successful Doha Round with the trade effects of actions aimed at reducing domestic trade costs for traders in developing countries and the world as a whole. We show that a relatively small reduction in trade costs will generate trade impacts that are larger than what is likely to emerge even from a relatively ambitious Doha Round market access outcome. This illustrates the importance of complementing market access commitments with measures to reduce trade costs in developing countries - which is the objective of the trade facilitation negotiations in the Doha Round - and additional aid for trade to assist countries in covering the costs of improving trade-related procedures and processes. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Nkurunziza J.D.,UNCTAD
Journal of International Trade and Economic Development | Year: 2010

Few studies test for the effect of credit and convergence on firm growth in the context of a developing economy. The use of bank credit can affect firm growth in two opposite ways. The effect may be positive if credit allows a firm to address its liquidity constraint and increase investment and profitability. However, if macroeconomic shocks such as unexpected increases in interest rates make firm debts unsustainable, as experienced in Kenya in the 1990s, indebted firms may shrink or even collapse. Using microeconomic data on the Kenyan manufacturing sector, this study finds that conditional on survival, the firms that use credit grow faster than those not using it. There is also evidence that small firms grow faster than large ones, confirming the convergence hypothesis. These results are robust to alternative estimation procedures controlling for both endogeneity and selection bias. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source


Ostensson O.,UNCTAD
Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels | Year: 2010

The conditions of the global iron ore companies across the world have been discussed. It has been reported that the steel production witnessed a recovery in the year 2009, but the total 2009 production would be about 10% lower than in 2008. Stimulus packages had a significant impact on the iron ore market and the production in Europe and North America had declined significantly. Chinese crude steel production would be more than 550 Mt in 2009 and some Chinese mines could not cover their costs at prices of products. Global iron ore demand has been reported to increase by about 10% in future. The demand growth to 2020 is expected to average 3.3% per year from 2008 to 2020 and around 2014, world iron ore demand would pass the 2 billion tons threshold. The benchmark pricing system, which tied overseas exporters to fixed prices, made the freight rate the most important dynamic factor defining competitiveness. The seaborne trade has been expected to grow leading to opportunities for new suppliers and causing intermittent supply squeezes after 2012. Source


Outreville J.F.,HEC Montreal | Hanni M.,UNCTAD
Journal of Wine Research | Year: 2013

The objective of the paper is to identify some of the determinants of foreign investment of the largest multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in the wine industry. The factors that drive firms to invest abroad and those that determine the location of those investments are examined in the case of the world wine industry. The list of the largest MNEs has been compiled using financial databases and company websites. Spearman rank correlation values are calculated between the ranking of the location popularity of host countries and the ranking of the independent variables or indices for the same period. The results of this study have some important implications. They indicate that location-specific advantages of host countries do provide an explication of the internationalization of firms in some preferred countries rather than others. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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