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Greensboro, NC, United States

Overman A.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Bumrungpert A.,Mahidol University | Kennedy A.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Martinez K.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity

Background:Obesity-associated inflammation is characterized by an increased abundance of macrophages (Ms) in white adipose tissue (WAT), leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins (PGs) that can cause insulin resistance. Grape powder extract (GPE) is rich in phenolic phytochemicals that possess anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.Objective:We examined the ability of GPE to prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in human Ms and silence the cross-talk between human Ms and adipocytes.Design:We investigated the effect of GPE pretreatment on LPS-mediated activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and induction of inflammatory genes in human Ms (that is, differentiated U937 cells). In addition, we determined the effect of GPE pretreatment of Ms on inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes incubated with LPS-challenged M-conditioned medium (M-CM).Methods and Results:Pretreatment of Ms with GPE attenuated LPS-induction of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1Β; chemokines, such as IL-8 and interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10); and a marker of PG production, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Grape powder extract also attenuated LPS activation of MAPKs, NF-B and AP-1 (c-Jun), as evidenced by decreased (1) phosphorylation of c-Jun NH 2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38; (2) degradation of IBα and activation of an NF-B reporter construct; and (3) phosphorylation of c-Jun and Elk-1. Using LPS-challenged M-CM, GPE pretreatment attenuated M-mediated inflammatory gene expression, activation of an NF-B reporter and suppression of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human adipocytes.Conclusion:Collectively, these data demonstrate that GPE attenuates LPS-mediated inflammation in Ms, possibly by decreasing the activation of MAPKs, NF-B and AP-1, and that GPE decreases the capacity of LPS-stimulated Ms to inflame adipocytes and cause insulin resistance. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Compton M.V.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Appenzeller M.K.,UNCG | Kemmery M.,Franciscan University of Steubenville | Gardiner-Walsh S.,Illinois State University
American Annals of the Deaf

In a qualitative study conducted in the southern United States, the researchers explored the perceptions of seven itinerant teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing regarding the formation and maintenance of collaborative relationships during consultation services the teachers provide to general educators. The researchers used the theoretical construct of collaboration proposed by Friend and Cook (1990, 2007) in the analysis of interviews. It was found that itinerants employed elements of collaboration as outlined by Friend and Cook and that these teachers regarded these collaborative relationships as essential to fulfilling their consultative responsibilities. However, as the itinerant teachers strived to establish and maintain collaborative relationships, they faced barriers related to time constraints, insufficient administrative support, and variable perceptions of the necessity of collaborating with general educators. © 2015, Gallaudet University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Sastre L.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Haldeman L.,UNCG

INTRODUCTION In 2012, North Carolina ranked in the top ten states in refugee resettlement, with central Guilford County one of the most diverse in the southeast. OBJECTIVE Examine the local resettlement environmental, nutrition and health barriers and needs of refugees in Guilford County, as perceived by individuals providing services to them. METHODS Participants (n = 40) included: medical and social service providers, educators, faith-based volunteers, resettlement agency caseworkers and liaisons to a variety of refugee communities. Guided semistructured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using deductive content analysis and categorized by frequency of reporting by participants. RESULTS Perceptions were consistent across participants regarding a diverse local refugee population. Resettlement housing was observed to be in poor condition, located in areas of poverty with transportation barriers. However, refugees rarely relocated, due to strong community relationships and support. Perceived dietary risks included: difficulties budgeting and maintaining food assistance, hoarding food, high consumption of sodas and sweets, misperceptions regarding US products (e.g., perceived need for infant formula), and limited health knowledge. Respondents observed that most refugees preferred fresh foods, and had strong agricultural skills but lacked green space. Major barriers to health care reported were: poverty, short duration of initial Medicaid coverage, and language (both lack of interpretation services and translated materials). Providers consistently observed type 2 diabetes, weight gain and dental problems across refugee groups. CONCLUSIONS Direct service providers' experiences and observations working with a diverse resettlement population provide unique insight into consistent barriers to achieving good health that confront refugees. While refugees face many barriers, groups often have impressive strengths, such as agricultural skills, on which to focus. Source

This essay calls attention to the practical implications that community food organizers can glean from Scott Hamilton Kennedy's documentary, The Garden. More specifically, the authors examine the discursive tensions faced by the South Central Farmers as a way to make sense of their own use of dialog, policy, and health networking to build a community food initiative. The essay concludes by offering a unique metaphor-mycelium-in order to promote sustainable health practices and organize community-based food programs. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Logan C.A.,UNCG | Brauckmann S.,University of Tartu
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology

Founded in Vienna in 1903, the Institute for Experimental Biology pioneered the application of experimental methods to living organisms maintained for sustained periods in captivity. Its Director, the zoologist Hans Przibram, oversaw until 1938, the attempt to integrate ontogeny with studies of inheritance using precise and controlled measurements of the impact of environmental influences on the emergence of form and function. In the early years, these efforts paralleled and even fostered the emergence of experimental biology in America. But fate intervened. Though the Institute served an international community, most of its resident scientists and staff were of Jewish ancestry. Well before the Nazis entered Austria in 1938, these men and women were being fired and driven out; some, including Przibram, were eventually killed. We describe the unprecedented facilities built and the topics addressed by the several departments that made up this Institute, stressing those most relevant to the establishment and success of the Journal of Experimental Zoology, which was founded just a year later. The Institute's diaspora left an important legacy in North America, perhaps best embodied by the career of the developmental neuroscientist Paul Weiss. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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