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O'Connor A.,UNC Chapel Hill Nutrition Research Institute | Swick A.G.,UNC Chapel Hill Nutrition Research Institute
Human Heredity | Year: 2013

Obesity is a polygenic chronic condition, and dysregulation in multiple underlying energy balance processes drives the obese phenotype. Lifestyle changes can be difficult to sustain long term, and anti-obesity drugs can be an advantageous component of a successful weight loss plan. However, due to lack of efficacy or adverse safety profiles, there is currently a limited selection of anti-obesity drugs on the market. This, coupled with the notable interindividual variability in efficacy of approved treatments, represents a significant unmet medical need. In this review, we will highlight this variability in weight loss response to these existing anti-obesity compounds and discuss how underpinning genetic variation is associated with weight loss outcomes. Existing research in the field of pharmacogenomics and obesity drugs will be highlighted, as will possibilities for future focus. We will conclude by exploring examples of successful pharmacogenomics studies, and also by asking how pharmacogenomics can be built into the drug development pipeline for the benefit of patients and pharmaceutical companies alike. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

O'Connor A.,UNC Chapel Hill Nutrition Research Institute | Quizon P.M.,UNC Chapel Hill Nutrition Research Institute | Albright J.E.,UNC Chapel Hill Nutrition Research Institute | Lin F.T.,UNC Chapel Hill Nutrition Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Mammalian Genome | Year: 2014

Intestinal microbial community structure is driven by host genetics in addition to environmental factors such as diet. In comparison with environmental influences, the effect of host genetics on intestinal microbiota, and how host-driven differences alter host metabolism is unclear. Additionally, the interaction between host genetics and diet, and the impact on the intestinal microbiome and possible down-stream effect on host metabolism is not fully understood, but represents another aspects of inter-individual variation in disease risk. The objectives of this study were to investigate how diet and genetic background shape microbial communities, and how these diet- and genetic-driven microbial differences relate to cardiometabolic phenotypes. To determine these effects, we used the 8 progenitor strains of the collaborative cross/diversity outbred mapping panels (C57BL/6J, A/J, NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HILtJ, WSB/EiJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and 129S1/SvImJ). 16s rRNA profiling of enteric microbial communities in addition to the assessment of phenotypes central to cardiometabolic health was conducted under baseline nutritional conditions and in response to diets varying in atherogenic nutrient (fat, cholesterol, cholic acid) composition. These studies revealed strain-driven differences in enteric microbial communities which were retained with dietary intervention. Diet-strain interactions were seen for a core group of cardiometabolic-related microbial taxa. In conclusion, these studies highlight diet and genetically regulated cardiometabolic-related microbial taxa. Furthermore, we demonstrate the progenitor model is useful for nutrigenomic-based studies and screens seeking to investigate the interaction between genetic background and the phenotypic and microbial response to diet. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

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