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Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine initiatives adopted by the Brazilian regulatory agency in support of R&D activities in the Brazilian telecommunications, in the light of some regulatory theories, particularly incentive regulation. Methodology/approach/design - The telecommunications reform in Brazil from the end of the 1990s up to Anatel's current activities are seen through a fact and law approach. Analysis is made of regulatory theories that have been projected over the course of state action in the economic field, such as the theory of the public interest . Findings - The application of the study of Robert Horwitz may be useful for further commensurability consideration of U.S. and Brazilian state regulation models. Practical implications - This critical analysis seeks to provide an overview and an introductory approach that offers a starting point for further knowledge deepening of the interactions between state regulation and R&D public policies. Originality/value - The text proposes a contribution towards identifying elements in the legal-institutional and theoretical sphere that allow for a renewed view over the reasons and the legitimacy of such unprecedented role taken by the Brazilian regulatory body in the field of R&D. Source

This paper, originated in a quali-quantitative study, attempted to analyze the practices of Mental Health in Family Health Strategy teams from Brazlândia, Federal District, Brazil, concerning their potential and limits for delivering integral care to people with mental distresses in primary care. Interviews were conducted with the professionals who were trained in Mental Health. The analysis employed the method of the Discourse of the Collective Subject. The results showed that the population has limited access to mental health care, due to the lack of structured support network. There was also low capacity to solve mental health problems in the context of FHS, since the actions developed emphasize outpatient appointments and referrals to medical admissions in hospitals, what shows both the still hegemonic biomedical conception in the practices, as the dismantling of a network to ensure integral care. These results lead to the debate of qualifications of the FHS teams in mental health, in order to recognize and enjoy the potential of the bond established between teams and users/families. Source

Paludo F.J.D.O.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Picanco J.B.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fallavena P.R.V.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Fraga L.D.R.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 4 more authors.

Aim: To analyze the effect of the two different versions of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2) on sepsis. The SOD2 gene presents the 47C>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; ID: rs4880) which produces MnSOD with different activities. The -9Val MnSOD (47T allele) is less efficient than the -9Ala version (47C allele). During sepsis there are abundance of ROS, high SOD2 expression and excess of H2O2 synthesis. High concentrations of H2O2 could affect the sepsis scenario and/or the sepsis outcome. Methods: We determined the 47C > T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies in 529 critically ill patients with or without sepsis, facing outcome. To collect information on population frequencies, we obtained a pilot 47C > T genotypic and allelic frequencies in a random group of 139 healthy subjects. Results: We compared the 47C allele carriers (47CC + 47CT genotypes) with 47TT homozygotes and noticed a significant association between 47C allele carriers and septic shock in septic patients (P= 0.025). With an adjusted binary multivariate logistic regression, incorporating 47C > T SNP and the main clinical predictors, we showed high SOFA scores [P< 0.001, OR = 9.107 (95% CI = 5.319-15.592)] and 47C allele [P= 0.011, OR = 2.125 (95% CI = 1.190-3.794)] were significantly associated with septic shock outcome. With this information we presented a hypothesis suggesting that this negative outcome from sepsis is possibly explained by effects on cellular stress caused by 47C allele. Conclusion: In our population there was a significant higher frequency of septic shock in septic patients with the 47C allele of the SOD2 gene. This higher 47C allele frequency in septic patients with negative outcome could be explained by effects of higher activity MnSOD on cellular stress during the sepsis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Adam M.-C.,UQAM CEF | Kneeshaw D.,UQAM CEF | Beckley T.M.,UnB
Ecology and Society

The forest industry is a significant contributor to the development of roads and most are constructed on Aboriginal territories. Many Aboriginal communities are isolated both socially and economically and Aboriginal cultures are often described as having inherent socio-environmental relationships. Aboriginal communities, therefore, may be the most likely to benefit and be most vulnerable to the impacts of road development. We use a case study approach to explore how an Aboriginal community interprets and responds to the increasing development of roads in its territory. The results are interpreted using the theory of access in order to frame the interactions between people and nature within a cohesive system which includes elements which are spatially located, flow, interact, and can be disturbed. The dominant themes discussed as being affected by the influence of roads on access included issues of the following nature: Aboriginal, hunting, foreign, territorial and environmental. Issues pertaining to Aboriginal actors as opposed to foreign actors such as the industry or non-aboriginal hunters and fishers dominated discussions. Although the positive effects provided by roads were alluded to, focus tended towards the affected relationships and ties between the territory, the environment and Aboriginal members. Roads are associated with changes in traditional roles and practices which benefit individualistic behaviors. The access mechanisms mediating and controlling the use of resources through traditional norms and roles such as sharing, asking permission, and helping in the practice of traditional activities no longer apply effectively. Changes in the traditional spatial organization of the territory have minimized the influence of knowledge, identity, and negotiation in mediating access among communities. Results highlight that conflicts have thus resulted between and among Aboriginal communities. Also, perception of the role of the environment and ways in which traditional practices occur has altered important socio-environmental dynamics which are part of Aboriginal culture. Source

This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and postabortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. Source

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